What three factors are essential for establishing a well-knit social order?
The three factors essential for establishing a well-knit social order are:
- Ideological inspiration
- Economic stability
First, there must be proper ideological inspiration for individual and collective progress. Society must be based on universal principles which are also a part of the socio-economic structure. The second factor is discipline. When there is no discipline in individual and collective life, societies and countries lose their power. Third, there must be economic stability. This entails proper plans and programs.
It means that any development that supports or aims at psycho-spiritual welfare may be termed as progress but other development is not progress. Ordinary physical development, for example the development from mass transportation by boat to airplane, is not progress in the proutistic sense, as the drawbacks of air transport outweigh its benefits. Similarly, in the mental sphere intellectual progress has its drawbacks and limitations in the form of recurring mental complications, tiredness, etc. Real progress, free of any negative effect or reaction, can only take place in the spiritual sphere of the Absolute. Therefore, development should be psycho-spiritually motivated in order to minimize negative effects and reactions in any sphere of individual and collective life.
What happens to economic and political power in PROUT’s economic democracy?
They are bifurcated. PROUT advocates political centralization and economic decentralization. Political power is to be given to moralists elected by politically-conscious voters, whereas economic power is to be given to the local people. The primary goal of the political administration will be to ensure that the economic needs of all people are met while the primary aim of the economy is to guarantee the minimum requirements of life to all members of society.
What is the difference between the liberty of PROUT and that of capitalism?
Capitalism deems it proper to allow any individual to act at liberty in the economic sphere. This policy is of catastrophic consequences as material resources are but limited. PROUT ensures the economic liberation of all by allowing all to progress at a maximum in all spheres. After all, economic development is not the final goal of life. In the physical sphere accumulation must be subject to collective permission or approval. If not, the all-round progress of the majority will be impossible due to the waxing greed of the economic ruling minority that emerges under such a system.
Why does PROUT promote less individual liberty?
By “less individual liberty” PROUT means liberty in the physical sphere. Material resources are limited and should be made subject to regulation while continuous efforts are being made to utilize them at a maximum and distribute them on a rational basis. Mental and spiritual resources are available in unlimited quantity and should be made subject to maximum utilization and rational distribution on that basis; i.e. everyone should be encouraged to progress maximum, educate him- or herself and reach the Supreme goal of life.
Is PROUT’s concept of class based on occupation or economic status?
Neither; PROUT’s concept of class is based on socio-existential mentality. A person who is ruled by the environment is proletarian (shudra; Sanskrit), while a person who rules the physical environment on the strength of his or her physical capabilities is a warrior (ksattriya). A person who rules the environment on the strength of his or her mental faculties is an intellectual (vipra), and a person who rules the environment on the strength of his or her capability to amass and control physical wealth is a capitalist (vaeshya). The collective form of each one of these four socio-existential mentalities form the particular class based on that respective mentality. There is no rigid social system attached to PROUT’s system of class. It is based on psycho-sociological realities and it is dynamic. A person’s fundamental social outlook and cast of personality is the key.
According to PROUT, why is leadership needed?
Human beings are social beings. Moreover, modern society has made it impossible to remain away from others; no one can shun the responsibility of being a member of society, and almost all of us recognize our common need to stay in touch. On the other hand no one is equal or identical to another. Where people meet, some are bound to know more about some things while others know more about other things. In order to give the direction for those who are in the dark as far as their welfare is concerned those who know more about the subtle needs and potentials of their fellow human beings should take the lead. The one subtlest need and potential of all human beings is the spiritual. Spirituality is all-embracing and those who have established their life on true spirituality should understand their responsibility and take up the lead for the good and happiness of all.
What is a sadvipra?
Sat (Sanskrit: Cosmic Truth) + vipra (intellect) = sadvipra. It means one whose intellect is ensconced in Cosmic Truth. The four ordinary classes – proletarian, warrior, intellectual and capitalist – dominate society in turn and are motivated by their respective social mentality. Sadvipras however are de-classed people who strive for the good of all. They have no own agenda except liberation for self and service to the creation. They are morally and spiritually conscious and possess all the qualities of the four classes without being dominated by any of them.
What is the main duty of this morally and spiritually enlightened leadership?
Their only duty is to make people more conscious so that the progress of all is always accelerated.
How will sadvipras emerge?
Spiritually and ethically conscious leaders – sadvipras – will be recognized by their exemplary conduct, service-mindedness and spiritual zeal. Their moral promptness and non-compromising attitude will lead the people in their efforts to get rid of corruption and exploitation and establish progressive welfare for all living beings. History bears testimony to this truth – great spiritual men and women has always been regarded as sources of inspiration. How often have we not heard that, “If only there had been many more of such-and-such great spiritual personalities, then the world would have been a better place.” The world will soon sanction the rule of sadvipras and will regard their universal benevolence as the natural and most social order of things.
How will PROUT’s morally and spiritually enlightened leadership be able to function?
Sadvipras will establish their own structure parallell to the democratically elected structure. Their duty will be to monitor proceedings and feed back to the people. Their source of power is their social and spiritual merit earned by their self-less service. On the basis of their social and spiritual merit people will recognize the sadvipras as true benefactors of society and therefore offer them support. The rapport between sadvipras and the people will be sustained by this confidence only.
Will there be elections in a proutistic society?
There will certainly be elections and candidates will need to produce their program in black and white. Candidates will furthermore be required to stick to their program; if they don’t they may be tried in court. If found guilty of deceiving the public legislators will not be entitled to stand in the forthcoming elections. The electoral right will be subject to a certain standard of political awareness. Democracy where illiteracy prevails becomes a farce.
What is the historical cause of state constitutions?
A state constitution is a guidebook for the proper conduct of a state; it is the written guarantee of democracy. Constitutions emerged in response to the irrational rule of tyrannical sovereigns.
What are PROUT’s minimum essentials for a world bill of rights
PROUT proposes that the following four rights go into a world constitution:
- Complete security should be guaranteed to all the plants and animals on the planet.
- Each country must guarantee purchasing power to all its citizens.
- The constitution should guarantee four fundamental rights – spiritual practice or dharma; cultural legacy; education; and indigenous linguistic expression.
- If the practice of any of these rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be immediately curtailed.
Why must animals’ and plants’ rights be included in the world constitution?
The sentiment of ordinary humanism discriminates against other groups of living beings; it has created environmental disaster. The environmental crisis is not first and foremost a problem of welfare of human beings. By enshrining the dignity and rights of one group – human beings – while mercilessly exploiting other groups – animals, plants and even the inanimate world – ordinary humanist sentiment has sowed the seeds of inter-species war directly and the seeds of intra-species fratricidal war indirectly. In a subtle way the discriminating sentiment of ordinary humanism even bodes for socio-sentiment as it is but an enlarged version of it. In short, neohumanism dictates us to guarantee the security of all living beings in order to protect dharma.
What sort of world government does PROUT advocate?
In the words of Sarkar:
“The world government has to be strengthened step by step and not suddenly. For example, two houses may be formed for an unspecified period for administration. The lower house will comprise representatives from parts of the world elected on the basis of population, while members of the upper house will be elected country wise. By this arrangement those countries which cannot send a single representative to the lower house due to their small population, will benefit by expressing their opinions before the people of the world by sending their representatives to the upper house. The upper house cannot adopt any resolution unless the lower house has ratified it, but it will enjoy the privilege of disallowing the decisions of the lower house. In the first stage this world government may act only as a law framing body. The world government will be vested with framing the rights of implementation or non-implementation of any particular law in any particular region. In the beginning when the world government is being established, the government of different countries will have only administrative power. As they will not have any power to enact any laws arbitrarily; it will not be easy for any government to inflict atrocities on its linguistic, religious, or political minorities according to the whims of the governing majority.” (Problems of the Day)
What is PROUT’s concept of nuclear revolution?
The nucleus of all is the Supreme. Any movement should be guided towards that nucleus. A revolution is needed when stagnancy has set in and where the movement towards the nucleus has come to halt. The inspiration from the nucleus is the positive force that will get the movement going again. Therefore, PROUT advocates the concept of revolution inspired by that nuclear force of spiritual inspiration.