Category Archives: Economic democracy

No More Political Parties – PROUT for Essential Social Unity

[Prout Globe, November 2016] – The present system of democracy relies on political parties as a means for directing voting processes, representation, etc.

Party politics however only seems to teach us to be quarrelsome, judgemental, divisive, backtracking, tricky, crooked, etc. The party system could be said to act as a bar to natural basic human cooperation.

In fact, the party system generates a class of “political animals”; individuals basking in mudslinging and lazy opportunism. Smart oratory cannot hide the fact that party politics remains divisive and dirty. Party affiliation and party hegemony do not promote basic human integrity.

Then there's the matter of money. Modern politics has become a career path for professional politicians and not a channel for service to society. Also in the same way as money means everything to politicians, it directly affects the outcome of election campaigns. Huge advertising budgets decide the results on Election Day, and those who contribute the most to campaigns can expect to be favoured by the winning political regime.

In contrast to an increasingly discredited political circus, PROUT seeks to promote a political system where people cast their votes for deserving people of integrity – not for the advertisement flashing the party ticket.

In PROUT's political setup individual candidates will have to publish their program in black and white. The successful candidate will be held responsible for their program and will have to resign if found guilty of serious backtracking.

Voters on the other hand will have to qualify to be able to join the electorate. The criteria of voter qualification will vary according to circumstances quite naturally. Everywhere basic literacy will be mandatory, and more advanced electoral educational institutions will evolve where people are ready for it. There will be efforts everywhere for the maximum progress of the electorate so that the entire political system may serve real human needs and not vested interests.

Age is not considered a deciding factor in PROUT's political system. In fact, PROUT calls on the young and conscious to enter the political fray.

A final word on PROUT's political system is that it places economic democracy at the centre of political affairs. Economic democracy, meaning economic rights and right to employment and being able to support oneself, is seen as essential to political processes. Without economic democracy, political democracy becomes meaningless.

PROUT’s Economic Revolution In a Nutshell

T N Das

Regarding earning money and hoarding wealth, most capitalists today are pishácavats [ghouls]. In Sanskrit pisháca means “one who breaks the neck of an animal and then sucks out all the blood, leaving only the flesh and bones”. In India it is said that it is extremely difficult to understand the nature of these bloodsucking ‘vampire capitalists’ – because when they drink water, even if it is already pure, they filter it; but on other occasions they drink people’s blood, which, even if it is not pure, they do not bother to filter!…
If, after analysing the economic structure of society, I described capitalists from developed countries as polished devils, I would find it extremely difficult to find a suitable term for their counterparts in underdeveloped countries. Such capitalists are not satisfied with just sucking people’s blood, they often devour their flesh and bones as well; then they beat drums made from the skins of their victims as they deliver religious and philosophical discourses, build temples and construct lodgings for pilgrims (dharmsalas), and undertake various other activities.
                                Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti


The words above are strong words but for those who know the story revealed by Greg Palast, Michael Hudson and others of how the current Global Economic Depression was deliberately planned by wealthy elites (economic terrorists) to create a global economic tyranny and a global police state, these words speak to the depths of our hearts where the flames of shame and rage are smouldering beneath the ashes of our blindness and our cowardice. We all know that every day, the future of this beautiful planet itself is being doomed further by the armies of corporate capitalist greed. And we all know that those responsible for the regime of economic tyranny and responsible for most of the misery of this planet are veritable demons in human form. We all have heard the endless statistics of economic inequality, poverty, malnutrition and we have all seen their victims on TV, the internet and newspapers. For example the Organization for Economic Development in October of 2014 has said that the world is facing the greatest economic inequality in health, education, inequality, the environment, and personal security in the last 200 years. This inequality is revealed in the 2014 Global Wealth Report of Credit Suisse Bank which reveals that 1% of the wealthiest people own 50% of the assets of the entire planet and that the bottom 50% of the population owns less than 1% of the world’s wealth. The report stated that in almost every country the top 1% of the wealthy elite owns from 100 to 1000 times the median amount of wealth. A stunning 95 percent of the world's population lost a share of its wealth over the past three years. Almost all of the gain went to the world's richest 1%. Inequality is a polite word for the wholesale robbery and misery of millions of people. We all know how so many “natural disasters” such as cyclones, floods, landslides are caused by human himsa against the environment. So no more facts, dialectical analyses or pictures are needed. We all know the truth no matter how we lie to ourselves. What is really needed is the blazing tenderness of love for all beings that drives us forth into action to deliver justice for every single one of them. Yet, by our continued failure to act we provide indulgence to corporate malevolence.

Economics is a principal part of human life. To ignore it, is to damn the planet and its beautiful beings as it literally becomes a hell on earth. So what must a new economic order be based upon?  

In the article “Economic Ethics and the Quality of Life” submitted to the Indian Economic Association in 1994, it was proposed that a new moral economics be founded upon the famed Sanskrit shloka (verse) said to be based on the sayings of Buddha,

Sarvetra sukhinah bhavantu sarve santu nirámayáh;
Sarve bhadráńi pashyantu má kashcid duhkhamápnuyát.

[Let everybody be happy; 
Let everybody be free from all physical or psychic ailments; 
Let everybody see the bright side of everything; 
Let nobody be forced to undergo any sorrow under pressure of circumstances.]

PROUT, which stands for the Progressive Utilization Theory, was given by Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in the form of sutras (aphorisms) in 1962. It is a revolutionary paradigm of socio-economic freedom designed to end this capitalistic order which as Blanqui said long ago is nothing but high-tech cannibalism.  We should note that in the benediction given at the end of the sutras of PROUT it is stated that PROUT exists,

Sarvajanahitárthaḿ sarvajanasukhártham.
[For the purpose of the physical, psychic and spiritual welfare of all beings
For the purpose of the all-round happiness of all beings.]

The Sanskrit word for this sacred “purpose” is “Artha”. “Artha” is also the Sanskrit word for “economics.” Shrii Sarkar has defined Artha as that which temporarily relieves, liberates and brings to an end all physical, psychic and spiritual bondages, afflictions and suffering. The basic theoretical understanding of this new science is elaborated in some detail in the book, What is Economics? What is clear however is that economics is by nature a libratory science and a revolutionary form of activity.

Permanent relief from sorrow and suffering is only possible by Param-artha or the Supreme Liberation which comes from spiritual meditation whereby we fight and transcends our internal weaknesses and then merge our mind in Pure Consciousness deep within our own “I-feeling.” Due to the countless forms of suffering caused by malevolent exploiters human beings are too traumatized and degraded to pursue the path of spiritual liberation. Hence the path of economics, of liberating them from sorrow is the bounden duty of everyone. When we have a tyrannical economic system that has killed so many people directly or indirectly by enforcing through the IMF or EU or national economic policies that plunge millions into misery, the only way to create a humane economic structure is the path of economic revolution. 

Revolution for Liberation

On January 26th, 1958 Shrii Sarkar set forth the mission of this revolution

“The economic structures in the world today, however, are not based on human rights. In order to recognize human rights, one will have to be ready for revolutionary changes, and one will also have to welcome them. The socialization of landed property, industry, trade and commerce – almost everything – is the major objective of this revolution.” (Problems of the Day)

To genuinely accept basic human rights, above all the rights of life – food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education – demands that one must accept revolution. And the essence of this revolution is that the control over all aspects of the economy will no longer be in the hands of a few business elites or of politicians and bureaucrats – sovereignty (swaraj) over all aspects of the economy will be in the hands of the local people of a community. And the movements that will launch this revolution have two aspects because  

“Movement means the active effort to destroy an existing structure and construct another. The very effort to destroy old, worn-out systems gives rise to the possibility of creating newer systems and codes.” (Moralism)

In the socio-economic paradigm of PROUT, these movements are for the economic and cultural sovereignty of bioregions or samajas. When many people of a particular community are moving forward for a particular purpose, it is called samája (Samánamejati) – the community of people who have taken a vow to move together. The people of these samajas, have decided to move collectively hand in hand sharing the common joys and sorrows of life, struggling collectively against wrongs and injustices. Prout samajas have 2 aspects 1) destructive of the current exploitative economic order – at the district (bhukti) level 2) constructive of a new Prout economy via master units and networks of cooperatives – at the block (subdistrict, upabhukti) level.

The main mission of Prout is to examine how the basic laws of justice are being violated in the daily lives of the common people. Above all the most fundamental form of justice is economic justice since without economic justice one cannot remain alive. If the government is failing to enforce these basic laws or if the government is enforcing an economic order that enforces economic exploitation and injustice then the duty of the Proutists is to establish and enforce basic justice by creating “pressure of circumstance.” This means that the Proutists will create a social, cultural and political environment that will either force the authorities to take action against exploiters or the Proutists will directly take action against exploiters. This can take the form of three approaches.

“To materialize the ideals of rational acquisition and rational distribution of mundane resources, our first approach will be spiritual, followed by psychic. Where even the psychic approach fails, the application of force would also be supported for the greater interest of the society. Those who are trying to avoid this fight are shirking their human responsibility.” (Discourses on PROUT)

This is the path of revolution that aims to destroy the existing network of economic exploitation throughout one’s district. This is the work of an entire network of communities (district) coordinating with other community networks (districts) in the socio-cultural region (samaja). This is a process that varies greatly in accordance with local conditions. However, we should mention that aside from removing outside exploiters another crucial task is removing foreign products that are preventing the growth of local industries. The dumping of cheap products in a poor country has been used by the UP (Holland), UK, USA and now China. The fight to stop the influx of foreign good is the key to establishing economic independence. 

Constructive Revolution

Let us focus then on the Economic Revolution or the struggle to construct a PROUT economy. This is primarily a localized industrial revolution based on organic industries. As Shrii Sarkar explains how this should function in North Bengal,

““So you must try to bring about an industrial revolution in the country. Just as there was a French Revolution, there should be an industrial revolution in Bengal.
For this industrial revolution we must not depend upon raw materials from foreign countries. Remember that no country should depend on imported raw materials for development. Indigenous raw materials, that is, materials available within the country itself, must be used for this purpose. Those who love society – those who love the people of their country and are keen to bring about their socio-economic elevation – must think in terms of an industrial revolution based on the raw materials available in their own socio-economic unit.
The districts of North Bengal – Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling and West Dinajpur – can produce and supply enough raw materials for industrial development. We must utilize the available raw materials. For example, Coochbehar district can supply jute and tobacco; Jalpaiguri district can supply pineapple fibres; and western Jalpaiguri district can supply jute fibres. Malda district can supply mango; textiles; silk; rice bran for producing edible rice bran oil; and jute and maize which can be used to make paper. The Malda silk industry can successfully compete with Chinese and Japanese silk, but unfortunately Malda, which has so much industrial potential, is the third poorest district in Bengal.
These things should be done, and they should be done in a short span of time. No industry in Bengal should depend on raw materials imported from outside.
You should bring about this revolution. You should collectively chalk out plans and programmes and demand such a change, such a revolution. Do not delay.” (Principles of Balanced Economy)

The main mission of this industrial revolution is to fulfill the basic needs of the local people. Aside from the basic needs for survival by increasing agricultural and industrial production, this in particular means the spread of educational institutions based on the local culture and with the mission of all round liberation of the people from exploitation and to foster their socio-spiritual enlightenment. 

The main way this is done is by creating networks of cooperative such as 1) Consumer’s cooperatives (Upabhokta Samgraham), 2) Producer’s cooperatives (Utpadaka Samgraham), 3) House Building cooperatives (Vastukara Samgraham), 4) Family Annuity (Insurance) cooperatives (Vipraya Trana Samgraham) 5) Cooperative Bank (Arthopayoga Samgraham) and 6) Service Cooperatives (Seva Samgraham). Creating networks of consumer cooperatives stores is also crucial so that the local people are not bound to the economic network of the exploiters. Housing cooperatives are also necessary not just to provide shelter for families but also for charity homes for those with special needs. In order for this to happen cooperative banks are required to provide credit and financing to cooperatives. Finally to free the community from the capitalist greed-based psychology various cultural cooperatives of artists, dramatists and musicians are required. Medical cooperatives are a part of this because holistic medicine is about changing the entire lifestyle and behavioural culture of the people.
Let us now briefly explore this economic revolution. Economic revolution embraces all walks of daily life but is driven by 3 forms of revolution – Production Revolution, Distribution Revolution and Consumption Revolution



Production Revolution

In every nation, the tale of exploitation of countless people is part of the vicious history of the “modern” world. The production of a community’s wealth is the heart of economic exploitation everywhere. Still today the stories of how, those who produce the world’s wealth are terrorized by exploitation and violence, continues being written in the sweat and blood of these victims and their descendants. That true history does not just cry out for justice, it damns those who consent to this economic himsa by their silence.

So a revolution in the realms of economic production is the duty especially of those middle class citizens fortunate to enjoy some of the luxuries and amenities that come from so much misery. Once an African slave who worked his whole life picking cocoa beans that are made into chocolate but he himself had never tasted chocolate. He was asked what message he wanted to give to those wealthy people fortunate enough to eat chocolate. He said, “When you eat chocolate, you eat my blood.”

A Production Revolution consists primarily of movements for Earth Democracy, Food Democracy and Ecological Democracy.


1)    Earth Democracy
The religions of most communities of the world during the Middle Ages were committed to aversion, hostility an animosity towards Nature and the communities of plants and animals. The crimes of human beings were used to justify rejecting, renouncing this world as an illusion or as a place of suffering. The religious leaders perpetuated the misery of the world by supporting various exploitative rulers and proclaiming them to be caliphs, living Buddhas, vicars of God (European kings) or descendants of gods like Vishnu. The rise of modern science eroded for a few centuries the religious beliefs but it accelerated the religious animosity towards the natural world. The history of the “modern world” has largely been nothing but a series of jihads or crusades against the natural world or Nature. The rise of modern knowledge about ecology has merely led to an increase in the destruction of lifeforms on this planet and an increase in hypocrisy. The collapse of the “modern” world of capitalist civilization has only accelerated the destruction of the environment. By contrast the indigenous spirituality of various tribes, adivasis, etc, is based not on the doctrine of the world as an abode of suffering or as an outright illusion such as found in Buddhism, Hinduism (Vedanta) and Christianity. Indigenous spirituality is based on a commitment to the world as an abode of Divine Bliss. So divinity is not to be found in so-called heaven, it is to be worked for and fought for here on this planet and other planets. Only in this way can one become a righteous or Dharmic or righteous person. It is only a Dharmic person who can attain true salvation by merging their mind in Pure Consciousness.
The movement to end the exploitation of the Earth and establish Earth Democracy is based on three crucial movements for economic democracy. These are Land Democracy, Seed Democracy and Water Democracy. Water democracy includes irrigation as a basic human right.


Land Democracy is the goal of all living beings. Birds, dogs, monkeys and humans all mark land as their own and all fight to control “their” land. None of these however behave with as much barbarism, with as much hypocrisy as human beings. The ideal of sharing all the land as one family is innate in every culture and was practiced to a great extent in hunter-gatherer societies. In modern times when thousands were driven from their lands by early capitalism, it was Thomas Spence who first said that the real rights of Man are not simply the political rights espoused by Thomas Paine but rather law in common ownership of the land and the provision of a basic income to all people.
The crisis of the Global Economy in 2007 has led to what has been called “The Global Land Grab”. Africa as always is one of the main victims as in order to get hold over lucrative lands, western nations fund separatist and jihadi groups to cause civil war. Once nations become subservient they hand over more than 100,000 hectares to a western corporation who indulge in such destructive activities like mining. China also is active in this looting and part of the reason for the spread of jihadi groups is to create chaos that will make nations dependant on the US military (AFRICOM) and hence drive out the Chinese. At the same time due to Global Warming and due to destructive chemicals of modern farming, desertification is rapidly expanding.

Too often revolts against this Global Land Grab are sporadic and have no clear goal as 20th century goals of a socialist economy such as in Tanzania have been shown to be a failure. PROUT offers the goal of a network of regionally independent economies uniting together to liberate themselves from outside exploiters. Unless land democracy is built up in this localised way – at the grassroots – there is no scope for regional economic equality and sovereignty (swaraj). The problems with creating a land democracy lie not only with outside exploiters but also with local elites. Prout advocates a 4 phase approach as summarized by Shrii Sarkar

“In the first phase of the plan, those owning land which is productive as an economic holding need not be persuaded to join a cooperative. But if an economic holding comprises land which is dispersed in small plots, the scattered plots should be consolidated into one holding. Alternatively, wherever small, scattered, uneconomic plots are located, they will have to be joined together under cooperative management.
In the second phase all should be encouraged to join the cooperative system.
In the third phase there should be rational distribution of land and redetermination of ownership. In this new system two factors will determine the rational distribution of land – the minimum holding of land necessary to maintain a family, and the farmer’s capacity to utilize the land.
In the fourth phase there will be no conflict over the ownership of land. A congenial environment will exist due to psychic expansion because people will learn to think for the collective welfare rather than for their petty self-interest.” (Agrarian Revolution)

Water Democracy is also something that has to be built up at the grassroots. The increasing desertification has led to increasing seizing of water resources from the local people as well as corporates taking over control of the water supply and indulging in price gouging. Large dams have had a disastrous effects on local ecologies and communities and also have shown to result in rapid silting such as seen in the Aswan Dam. In recent times we see how for example in Sikkim near every small river feeding the Teesta River is being dammed and the electricity is being sold outside the state. As the climate crisis intensifies so are these conflicts as the corporate sector becomes more desperate for quick profits and the environment ministry becomes their rubber stamp. This sets the stage for water wars between communities between states. Large-scale water wars such as between Israel and Lebanon have set the pattern for future wars. These wars play divide and rule amongst communities and mask the ultimate truth that unless there is democratic control over water resources at the grassroots level, the people will either be robbed of the blessings of these water bodies either directly or indirectly by pollution from factories and mines. Hence a coordinated movement for water democracy is crucial not just at the local and regional levels but also at national and international levels. Mobilization for river protection and for liberation for rivers from outside control is a key part of the movement for economic democracy.

PROUT as always advocates a decentralized approach based on local district and block (sub-district) control over water resources. This includes the creation of small-scale networks of local irrigation systems based on small-scale dams. In addition PROUT has an extensive programme for water conservation including     riverside afforestation, creating networks of large and small ponds to store rainwater as well as detailed information regarding the plants that will help these projects. This is the constructive approach for the water democracy movement.

Seed Democracy is also crucial for Earth Democracy. It is when communities become independent of the capitalist economy by creating their own agriculture based on their own seeds that they become ripe for attack by the corporate and their media and their military. Vandana Shiva has pioneered the movement to stop corporate patenting of local seeds as their products. Dan Morgan has exposed the history of the 5 companies who control the grain of the world. William F Engdahl has exposed the conspiracy of corporations (like Monsanto) selling Genetically Modified (BT) seeds to enslave the world with their toxic products that have been shown to lead to cancer and psychological disorders.

The ultimate reality is that unless the people control their own seeds they will increasingly fall prey to the corporate BT seeds that have severe side-effects and also bankrupt farmers. Farmers are divided by race, ethnicity, caste, religion but have to unite in order to liberate their samaja or bioregion. The samaja movement as a multidimensional movement embracing culture, spirituality and ecology alone can foster a new culture of deep unity based on service to the sacred soil of one’s homeland.

2)    Food Democracy


Cereals have been instruments of power since ancient times. To centralize the production of cereal crops in order to maximize profits and control over the people has been the mission of every empire. The six corporations control the world’s grains supplies are Cargill, Continental, Louis Dreyfus, Bunge and Born, Andre and Archer Daniels Midland/Topfer are the offspring of the British Empire. Furthermore the price of grains that cause food crises and famines is controlled by speculators on grain futures in stock markets. 

In each nation, the national governments seize land from the indigenous peoples (adivasis) they destroy their traditions of using many different grains that are less destructive of the soil and often more healthy than the monoculture of wheat, corn and rice. The toxic pesticides that are part of growing cereals today have not only ruined the rivers and environment but have also led to increased levels of cancer.
The organic or Agro-ecological movement is not enough to stop this. As the global land grab accelerates, more and more land is being seized and destroyed each year. The famous Kannada bhakti poet Kanaka Das wrote the Ramdhanyacaritre in which Ragi (finger millet – nutritious, coarse food of the poor) and Rice (food of the rich) ask the god Rama to judge who is superior and Ragi is judged the winner. Modern science agrees with this judgement. Crops like Ragi and jowar (sorghum) are being increasingly used not just due to their high nutrition but also due to the fact that they do not destroy the soil like water-intensive crops like rice. However, the fact is that the people are increasingly being forced not just to grow only rice and wheat but to grow BT grains like golden rice that have dangerous side-effects and unproven benefits. As more and more farmers face drought and as monsoon floods result in the polluting of land with river sands, it becomes clear that communities in a samaja (bioregion) must reclaim swaraj over their cereal production. This is part of the struggle for economic democracy.   

Lentils (dal), nuts and dairy are the fundamental proteins. Increasingly the production of these proteins is coming into corporate hands. However, even where there is not the case, we find local or national merchants raising prices by hoarding. When the pressure from the public becomes strong, the government launches raids on smaller merchants but lets the main hoarders escape the law. In addition there is the fact of chronic rotting of food in silos due to shoddy management as well as the illegal sales of food stocks by corrupt government officers. India as a result has severe malnutrition and stunting. The depriving of regular protein is one of the significant reasons for this. In such an emergency situation, direct action against the major hoarders is required to establish basic justice. This is part of the fight for Anna Azadi (community freedom to control its food supply).

The horror of the factory farming dairy industry in the US where cows are injected with antibiotics and hormones and subjected to high-tech torture is spreading around the world. As many know, the rapid destruction of the world’s forests by the meat industry is one crucial factor in the global ecological crisis. Even if the meat industry is shut down, the dairy industry is still highly abusive to cows. The decentralizing of the dairy industry is one step but this must be matched by strict laws and inspection to protect the health and dignity of dairy animals. Above all the primary aim of localized dairy production is to meet the needs and tastes of the local people and not to participate in corporate controlled markets. Even in wealthier countries, excess regulation and the rise of corporate farms has driven individual and cooperative farms out of business. Hence to regain control over the land and establish organic and humane dairy farming is truly a revolutionary movement

Fruits and vegetables are crucial to health. Yet in many countries not just fruits but even many vegetables have become food only the upper middle class can afford. Increasingly the right to food is becoming an international movement. However, it must be clear that people must have the right to afford fruits, milk and lentils on a daily basis. This fight for food democracy (Anna Ganatantra) is above all a fight to control the production of fruits and vegetables. Often fruits are exported leaving a small percentage for more wealthier local people. Furthermore the rampant use of pesticides banned in western nations makes the fruit toxic. The ultimate reality is that unless communities unite to seize control over the food production in their bioregion they face a grim future as climate change accelerates. Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in the garden city of Ananda Nagar has created extensive plans for large-scale organic food production. To plan to replicate this in local areas is crucial at the same time while planning for revolution otherwise food crises may ensue. This is one way in which PROUT advocates not just a passionate physical revolution or even a spontaneous economic revolution (as seen in the Spanish Civil War) but rather a comprehensive economic revolution inspired the socio-cultural renaissance of Samaja movements.

3)    Ecological Democracy
Ecological democracy means many different things. The original meaning came from environmental justice movements where local people victimized by corporate mining and industries asserted their rights to control the local ecology of their area. Later ecological democracy referred to the rights of the plants, animals and the Earth in a local area to remain free from human violence. Ecological democracy also refers to a future goal of an ecological society or a participatory society devoted to fostering the long-term ecological flourishing of all beings – both the so-called animate and inanimate. Finally there is an increasing revival of traditional (shamanism, paganism) spirituality rooted in worship of different natural entities.

Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, the founder of NeoHumanism noted that every living being has existential value which cannot be violated irrespective of its utility value to human beings. Second He stated that among the core values of a future World Bill of Rights would be the guarantee of complete security to all the plants and animals on the planet. He also mandated that training centres should be created to develop the minds and later spirituality of animals. He created the PCAP (Prevention of Cruelty to Plants and Animals) movement to create nature preserves (PASAKA) as well as to educate the public and stop crimes against animals and plants. Since NeoHumanism is rooted in mystical love (bhakti) and was created to protect this mystical love from the onslaught of narrow sentiments like nationalism, it has a very different approach to what is called sacred ecology. 

Part of bioregional (samaja) development is to create centres (Baba Pari Mandala Goshti) of mystical love energies (using the Divine Name of the Beloved Lord) so as to spiritually charge different forests, rivers, valley, hills. This is how a spiritual geography is created. Secondly ecology has an inner dimension according to Shrii Sarkar. This involves the balancing of glandular hormones, propensities (vrttis) associated with various cakras (vital-spiritual energy centres) as part of raising the kundalini (spiritual force at the base of the spine) to be merged with the Supreme Stance of Consciousness at the crown (Sahasrara) cakra. This inner physic-psycho-spiritual order also requires ecological balance and equipoise. The goal of inner ecology is the merger of all these psychic expressions in Pure Consciousness. This is not merely an individual goal but also a collective one as well. The merger of all life on this planet and then in this universe with the Supreme Stance of Consciousness is explained as follows,

“So in this phase of introversial movement, when crude physicality is being transmuted into psychic, we can expect that the day is sure to come when the whole world will move from the subtle psychic realm and cross the threshold of the still more subtle spiritual world. And that day when the entire living world – dashing through a transitory phase of psychic – will become spiritual will not be in the distant future.” (Biological Transformation Associated with Psychic Metamorphosis and Vice Versa)

This is the ultimate goal of ecological democracy of Neohumanism not merely on this tiny planet but in the entire universe.
Ecological democracy however, at the basic level comprises 1) Earth Rights 2) Plant Rights and 3) Animal Rights 


Earth rights is one of the most important development in modern times. The Universal Declaration of Rights of Mother Earth is one of the major documents of this movement. This was based on an Earth Rights amendment to the constitution of Bolivia. In this regard it should be mentioned that Shrii Sarkar was never a global thinker like many Gaian ecologists, rather He was a Cosmic thinker. Globalism can in a cosmic society be as dangerous as nationalism is today. Right now because human beings are confined to this planet we talk about the rights, the beauty and the divinity of this planet. However NeoHumanism gives equal importance to other celestial bodies, large and small, such as asteroids, suns, etc. Each of them has rights as well. Earth rights gives rights not just to the Earth as a whole but to each river, frozen tundra, hill and desert. In His 5018 songs, Shrii Sarkar has celebrated the divinity of even a dust particle. To acknowledge the rights of the landforms in one’s local area means that one has accepted one’s responsibility to serve and protect them. This is an essential part of economic revolution that is based not just on the idea of Annam Brahman (Food is the Supreme Cosnciousness) but of reverence for the Kśamáḿ Bhúmiḿ Bráhmańá Vávrdhánám (the Forgiving Earth that has grown and become manifest out of Pure Consciousness or Brahman – Atharva Veda XII.1.29).

Plant rights refers to the rights of individual and groups of plants and not just to the rights of forests to exist. The right of even the most humble plant to survival and growth is one of the hallmarks of Shrii Sarkar. He devoted much of His time to collecting and distributing common as well as rare plants. In His songs, He revealed even the mystical feelings of plants. At the same time many new plant-based industries were revealed. It is the evolution of the human psyche by meditation that gives people the capacity to intuit and respond to the subtle expressions of plants. He noted that the development of this plant intuition is one reason why agriculture is part of the beauty of human culture. For this biodiversity mapping of all plant species and the spread of awareness about endangered species is crucial. While traditional education gave children a vast knowledge about different plants and teaches to reverence them, the present education system leaves one ignorant of them. The cultural movement that brings about the change in the collective psychology to develop sensitivity to the needs of plants is part of the bioregional (samaja) movements of PROUT.

Animal rights also refers to the rights of individuals, communities and species of animals and birds to survive and thrive. Jason Hribal has shown that the rise of capitalism went hand in hand with the increasing exploitation of animals. Hence animals are the ultimate victims of capitalism which has developed high tech slaughter in western countries. PROUT is committed to ending the meat industry which is destroying our planet. In addition PROUT envisions strict laws protecting the rights of animals as well as their enforcement by government officials. The fight for animal rights in a bioregion (samaja) is one of the core activities of PROUT. As many have said the present relentless murder of animals and plants is akin to a war that capitalist greed is waging on this planet. In the emergence of economic democracy there must be clear laws and advocates advancing the safety and diversity of animal species.

Consumption Revolution

PROUT is an economy based on Consumption rather than on profit. What does this mean? Currently capitalists start enterprises where they believe they can make a profit. Governments bend over backwards to help them and to free them from serving the local communities (through taxes) and frees them from responsibility for any pollution. The end result is a race to the bottom as companies scour the globe searching for profits as the economy faces more and more crises. Large regions of the world are faced with stagnant or dying economies and environmental pollution. The basic fact is that this system is a form of violence – economic violence. Just as an abused woman often will not accept the basic fact that she is being abused and exploited out of fear, so also many in the global community have not accepted the obvious fact that the current economic system is not just a mafia network but simply a form of economic violence. Economics literally means the laws governing production for the welfare of the entire oikos (household community, including plants and animals). The present system of economic himsa does not function for the welfare of the global or local community and hence is the enemy of humanity.

A consumption based economy is rooted in the needs of the oikos in the form of a block (sub-district, upabhukti) and a socio-cultural ecoregion (samaja). Based on collective study of the needs of a community, economic plans are made to meet those needs. These products are meant not only to fulfill the community’s material needs and desires but also their intellectual, cultural and spiritual needs and desires. This is a new branch of economics known as psycho-economics. Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays created a new system of propaganda designed to create a consumer society based on materialism and cultural degradation. The primary goal of this system was to create artificial demand and desires for the consumption of the latest industrial products of corporations. PROUT aims rather to change production to meet the actual needs and desires of the local people. PROUT seeks to liberate people in all ways and enrich their lives with aesthetics and mysticism and the economy is oriented towards production to foster this type of consumption also. The economy has always been designed for the welfare of elites and it has undergone various stages of centralization from the local to regional to national and global levels. PROUT seeks to reverse this and build up economic sovereignty (swaraj) and democracy at the local level. This is the Consumption Revolution of PROUT.

This Consumption Revolution is driven by movements for three forms of economic democracy: 1) Subsistence Democracy 2) Worker Democracy and 3) Industrial Democracy.


1)    Subsistence Democracy
The first and foremost aim of a PROUT economy is Subsistence Democracy. This means firstly that people should no longer be slaves of government handouts or the whims of a corporation. The control over the production and consumption of various essential products must be in the hands of the local people. This means also that the control of the various natural and other resources of the local area must be in the collective hands of the local people. This will guarantee their survival with dignity and eliminate extreme poverty. So much of the suffering in this world is that people have no economic security because of the struggle for survival. 
As per PROUT there is a new branch of economics that provides Subsistence Democracy to every community and bioregion (samaja) – People’s Economics. Shrii Sarkar explains it as follows,

“People’s economy deals with the essential needs of the people in general – the production, distribution, marketing, shipping, storage, pricing, sales, freight charges, pro forma costing, and all related activities of such essential needs. Most importantly, it is directly concerned with the guaranteed provision of minimum requirements such as food, clothing, housing, medical treatment, education, transportation, energy and irrigation water. Continuous improvement in and ready availability of these requirements is the key factor in people’s economy.
The minimum requirements can be assured through guaranteed purchasing capacity which should be enshrined in the constitution as a fundamental or cardinal human right. This will give the citizens of the country legal power if their minimum requirements are not met, hence the necessity of purchasing capacity will be reinforced by constitutional law. As people’s economy will deal with minimum requirements and people’s subsistence problems, it must take precedence over other parts of the economy.” (Quadri-Dimensional Economy)

This comprises 1) a Survival Revolution 2) Education Revolution and Dignity Revolution.


Survival Revolution involves providing people with enough nutritious food, water and medicine – creating an economic revolution to provide everyone these basic necessities in a decentralized way means mass industrialization (primarily of small-scale industries) of rural areas without destroying the environment. In order for this to happen control over all these products must be taken out of the hands of the capitalists and of their government netas. More and more people are being forced to realize that unless capitalism is destroyed their survival will become impossible. Thus revolution is becoming inevitable. This revolution not only involves taking over factories and throwing out local exploiters. It also involves careful planning about how to optimally utilize the local resources in an ecologically sustainable way to produce the basic goods for the people’s survival.

Dignity Revolution involves providing people with the basic amenities that enable them to live in basic comfort in their society such as clothing, shelter, transportation (vehicle), communication (phone), etc.. More advanced amenities are required also to enable people to fulfill their dreams and their artistic, technical, cultural and spiritual talents. For example in certain cultures having musical instruments is essential to their daily life. The primary requirement for this revolution is to love and know each person in the community like one’s own child and plan for their all-round development. This is a collective activity that creates genuine societies. Preparing economic plans to produce such amenities is crucial to a subsistence revolution because subsistence must always be with dignity as part of human civilization.

Education Revolution is one crucial aspect of Subsistence Revolution. PROUT is committed to the all-round enlightenment and liberation of everyone in all aspects of material, intellectual, sentimental, cultural, intuitional and spiritual life. Currently 26% of the people of the world are illiterate and an even greater percentage is semi-literate. Moreover of the illiterate people in the world, 98% are in the exploited regions of South and West Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab States. Providing mere literacy or simply the ability to find a job in the corporate economy is not important. As Shrii Sarkar bluntly states,

“The system of education prevailing today was formulated or evolved long ago, mainly with a view to suit the needs of the capitalist class. For the last three to four thousand years, the same type of education is being imparted. The main purpose behind this sort of educational system is to create persons with slavish mentality: this sort of education is fundamentally defective. A new educational system must evolve to produce sadvipras (spiritually-based revolutionaries): we have to thoroughly revamp the entire educational system.” (Taking the Opposite Stance in Battle)

This is part of a new education system based on mystical universalism or NeoHumanism. The focus of NeoHumanistic Education lies in gaining all-round knowledge that enables one to liberate oneself and others and the capacity for all-round service to the community. To study the scripture of NeoHumanist Education one can consult Shrii Sarkar’s book Adorning the Dawn: Discourses on NeoHumanist Education. 

2)    Industrial Democracy
Industrial Democracy is a crucial aspect to Economic Revolution. Countless people are forced to migrate due to a lack of industries in their local area. Furthermore as soon as capitalists find a place where the workers are more repressed and where they will be able to exploit them more, they will abandon their existing industries and move, leaving the local workers unemployed. There is a vast mafia in smuggling workers in Asia and the Americas due to international exploitation whereby local economies in poor countries are destroyed by outside capitalists thus forcing the local people to migrate in search of work to support their families.

When workers now arrive in the large cities they find that the modern system of factories has been largely dismantled and along with it benefits such as pension and basic labour system. Instead companies outsource parts of the industrial process to private dealers in the informal economy. These dealers choose different workers irregularly and hence do not give them any job security let alone any pension. In addition global slavery and bonded labour is expanding to cover more and more of the global economy.

PROUT supports a balanced economy. For a perfectly balanced economic environment, it is required that not more than thirty to forty percent of the people should depend directly on agriculture, and about twenty percent on agro-industries, twenty percent on agrico-industries (pre-harvest industries), ten percent on general trade and commerce, and ten percent on intellectual or white collar jobs. If there is too much industrialization then the region or country will be forced to import agricultural products from other lands. The shortage of agricultural goods leads to unhealthy diets for the poor as well as the breakdown of families in the baneful atmosphere of urban slums. Furthermore due to overproduction of industrial products it will be forced to try to propagandize (through the media) or force other lands to import their goods. This economic violence (himsa) and imperialism will corrupt their culture and lead to social breakdown. Thus industrial balance is crucial.
As per PROUT, the natural resources belong to the local people and thus any industries made from those resources also should be under the control of the local people. This is the root of industrial democracy. Moreover the functioning of the industries should also be under the supervision of the common people so that they are not the victim of destructive environmental practices.

There are three primary components to creating Industrial democracy – the Three-Tier Economy, Industrial Revolution and Self-reliance.


The 3 Tier Economy is one of the unique feature of the PROUT economic paradigm. The primary sector of this economy is the Cooperative sector comprising a network of different types of cooperatives involved in the production of all necessary goods for the local community. The secondary sector comprises key industries or only those large-scale industries or complex industries that it is not yet possible for cooperatives to produce such as mining. If the cooperative sector is industrially undeveloped then a key industry can be an automobile assembly industry with all parts being produced by industrial cooperatives. This sector is to be run on a “No profit, no loss” basis. Furthermore as far as possible at the block-level (sub-district) but if this is not possible then it can be run temporarily at the district or even state (bioregional, samaja) level until the block level industrial cooperatives become more sophisticated and efficient. Also when cooperatives become more industrially developed they can also run electric power cooperatives for the local region. Significant revenue from this sector can come from the confiscation of the excess wealth of capitalists, especially outside capitalists. The final sector is the private sector run by individuals. This sector only deals with luxury items or small grocery stores as all basic goods are produced and sold via cooperatives. This sector will be strictly supervised so that if employees are hired, then the store will be made into a cooperative. Many Gandhians have rejected industries and advocated only cottage industries. PROUT however favours smaller-scale sophisticated industries that can function in small towns or even villages such as is done in Germany. As Shrii Sarkar says,

“A rural economy should not depend solely on cottage industries, otherwise the economic welfare of the rural population will be jeopardized. If cottage industries are properly organized, rural women will also get ample scope to earn a decent livelihood. Cooperatives and the local administration will have to take the responsibility of supplying cottage industries with raw materials so that they do not suffer from scarcity.
The local administration will also have to arrange for the supply of sufficient power to facilitate industrial production. Every region in a socio-economic unit must strive to be self-sufficient in power generation. The local administration will have to supply locally generated power such as solar energy, thermal energy, bio-gas, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, pneumatic energy, electromagnetic energy and tidal power, or any other power which is easily available locally. The generation of power is a key industry which should be run on a no profit, no loss basis so that the cost of production is minimized and the purchasing capacity of the people is increased. 
For example, if batteries are produced through cottage industries, power should be supplied on a no profit, no loss basis, but the battery producers will be able to sell their batteries at a rational profit. Here the power that is used to manufacture the batteries is not an industrial commodity but a raw material. The power for such things as transportation, communication, schools, colleges and hospitals should also be supplied on a no profit, no loss basis to maintain social dynamism. The immediate government or the state government will have to take the responsibility to supply power as a key industry.” (Decentralized Economy – 1)

Industrial Revolution, as we have seen is a key aspect of PROUT’s economic revolution. In a discourse on creating economic self-sufficiency for Bengal, Shrii Sarkar mentioned firstly how in food production different parts of Bengal with unique enivironments can produced maximal amounts of the main forms of food such a rice, wheat, corn, lentils (dal). He then mentioned the different types of fabrics (cotton, types of silk, synthetic silk and plant fibres) that could be grown in different areas. He also mentioned different types of natural materials that can be used for construction of houses and automobiles. Unique materials were revealed to be useful for making paper and ink for schools.

Additionally various plant and mineral medicines of various areas were discussed. Finally various novel cash crops and non-agricultural industries were discussed. In this way the blueprint for an economic revolution was given. Not content with such plans, he gave detailed plans for a vast garden city in the poorest district of West Bengal. As part of these plans were proposed many new agricultural and non-agricultural industries. The unique features of these plans is that they involve natural materials and are small-scale and dispersed widely throughout out areas of village agriculture. This is just a brief glimpse of PROUT’s mission for industrial revolution in every community. To organize collective planning for such industrial revolutions and fight the local exploiters who are hoarding the local resources is the main task. 

Self-Reliance is the ultimate goal at all levels from the agricultural to the cultural. All bioregions (samajas) have the potential to increase their plant and crop varieties by properly matching these with the soil, topography and climatic conditions etc. in their units. Reforestation can reclaim arid and semi-arid regions, and some unique plants like the Puranica or fern, which has the capacity to attract clouds, can help radically transform the rainfall and weather patterns of a region. An integrated approach to farming should include such areas as agriculture, horticulture, floriculture, sericulture, lac culture, apiculture, dairy farming, animal husbandry, irrigation, pisciculture, pest control, the proper use of fertilizers, cottage industries, energy production, research centres and water conservation. In addition in countries like India where the percentage of women directly involved in development is the smallest in Asia, empowering women to be economically independent will lead to a rapid expansion of economic development. Additionally where minorities are discriminated against there can be a system. Based on this an industrial revolution can be created. Agro- and agrico-industries based upon the productive potential of different plants can also help solve rural unemployment by creating a range of new goods and services. There are many dimensions to this revolutionary plant rationalization program, which is also a practical expression of the ideals of Neohumanism. Above all as part of samaja (socio-cultural ecoregional) development, the zeal has to be roused in the people to make their block, district and region independent not just economically but in the realm of education, culture and spirituality. This is all part of the building of self-respect of a community.

3)    Worker Democracy

It is important to understand who is a worker. As per PROUT those whose mind is dominated by their environment and by material life have the mentality of a worker or shudra. Many so-called rich or educated or upper class/caste persons have in fact this shudra mentality. The word “shudra” originally meant “slaves of a black complexion” and was a term used by the invading Aryans for the indigenous people of India (Dravidians, Austrics and Orientals). Needless to say, PROUT has fought against the caste system since its inception. The fact is that Lenin openly admitted the failure of Marxism to elevate the workers even in the realm of politics and economics and as a result proposed that worker’s movements be controlled by party elites. PROUT has a clear spiritual dimension which gives people inspiration, moral courage and expands the mind enabling people to develop social consciousness. This is why PROUT is confident in arousing the social and economic consciousness of the laborers and hence does not seek to make them subservient to a party or union. Ganatantra, the Indian word for democracy has a profound meaning. The actual meaning of the word “Tantra” means to liberate from dullness through rapid psycho-spiritual expansion. The word “Gana” used at present for the common people originally refered to the disciples of Lord Shiva. As Shrii Sarkar explains,

“In olden days neglected and exploited people, who had fallen prostrate under extreme oppression, used to look upon Shiva as their supreme shelter. Shiva would crush this exploitation with His thunderbolt – He would strike the arrogance of vain and egotistic people with His trident, and reduce to ashes the mountains of injustice and tyranny. He felt great compassion for those afflicted people and, making them sit beside Him, advised them how to solve their physical, psychic and spiritual problems. Shiva used to live on a hill, and all kinds of people from far and near would flock to Him. He would call them with the call of His viśáńa, His long horn, and that is why the people of those days could not think of Him without His viśáńa – so they lovingly nicknamed Him “Viśáńaninádaka” [“One who Blows the Viśáńa”]. 
Perhaps those persecuted people, whose lustreless faces showed no glow of well-being, who had been reduced to skeletons by their back-breaking labour, who had no soft bed of flowers on which to rest – those persecuted people, buffeted by hunger and exhausted by injustice – were not at all beautiful. That is why the arrogant tyrants of those days contemptuously called them “ghouls” and “ghosts”. But those so-called ghouls and ghosts were in fact the companions of Shiva. These unbeautiful representatives of the hungry masses of the world of that time were actually the simple and devoted followers of Shiva, His gańas who spoiled the yajiṋa of King Daksha… 
Shiva wanted His beloved devotees, His gańas who took shelter under Him, to attain the highest spiritual realization, and so He Himself used to teach them the different processes of spiritual practice to remove all spiritual and psychic afflictions; and moreover He spared no effort to help His devotees to overcome all mundane and social difficulties. Whenever Shiva noticed tears in the eyes of His devotees He felt restless. In fact, everyone was aware of the tenderness and flower-like softness of His large heart.” (Shiva in the Song of Shiva)

This is the mission of Prout’s Worker Democracy in a nutshell. Occupying and running factories as cooperatives is only just the beginning. The real mission is a revolution in the humanity of the exploited people – a revolution that socialists could not even imagine, a revolution religions worked to prevent people from trying to imagine. This revolution begins with 3 fundamental principles 1) Profit Sharing, 2) Security and 3) Purchasing Power


Profit Sharing: This is the heart of PROUT’s worker democracy. In general PROUT industrial cooperatives function like other cooperatives and the profit is shared amongst the workers depending upon the amount of labour and responsibility a person has. Furthermore all management positions are made by worker elections. PROUT stipulates that a worker’s shares cannot be passed on to family member, nor can shares be sold in the pivate stock markets. This is done to protect the cooperative from being taken over by capitalists. PROUT however wants these rights to profit sharing be extended to all workers and the economy to be taken over by cooperatives. Hence the mission for profit sharing is part of the fight for swaraj (sovereignty) over the local economy. In a country like India we see a dramatic rise in temporary labourers and the rapid decline of jobs with fixed hours and fixed income. This leaves women in particular vulnerable to extreme exploitation at low pay. Hence PROUT advocates the united struggle of all labourers not just to seize back their lost rights, nor to simply take over their workplaces but to create a new economy with new industries. This may seem like an impossible mission. However, in the current atmosphere of erosion of labour rights, rising unemployment and a second Global Economic Crisis, this kind of a freedom mission is in fact the only path to survival.

Security: The most crucial fact about labour in the 21st century is insecurity. Even higher level white collar jobs (professors, analysts) are being contractualized. This helps the capitalist avoid paying pensions and renders the worker constantly insecure and less likely to protest any form of exploitation. Such workers are called “precariats” as their future is always precarious. The ideal system advocated by PROUT is that not only would a worker be guaranteed a job that gives enough revenue to afford food, water, clothing, housing, medical and education for his or her family. In addition PROUT advocates cooperative banks that would give workers access to credit without punitive interest rates and without investing worker money in the stock market like private banks do. Finally PROUT encourages the development of insurance cooperatives to provide all basic insurance needed by workers and their families. Above all we should say the aim of PROUT is not to simply provide material prosperity but to provide economic support for the intellectual, cultural development and above all spiritual enlightenment of every worker. This alone provides security and dignity. 

Purchasing Power: We have mentioned that purchasing power will be guaranteed to provide security for workers. As per PROUT, this right must be included in every constitution in clear, unequivocal languages. It is important to state that this is not the provision of a Basic Income. PROUT does not believe in workers becoming dependant on government handouts. Rather PROUT believes in workers taking over and creating their own economy. Thus purchasing power is a power given to a worker by the collective group of workers and not by a government bureaucrat. This purchasing power is part of the control that the workers collective exert over their local economy. Hence the goal is not to provide workers with a “basic” income to enable them to afford the minimum requirements for life but rather an expanding income that enables them as much as possible to thrive and enjoy the higher amenities of civilized living while at the same time having scope for intellectual and spiritual enlightenment. The very purpose of democracy is to ensure this.

Distribution Revolution

The watchword of PROUT is maximum utilization and rational distribution of all physical, psychic and spiritual resources. Shrii Sarkar defines rationality as follows

“When, in judging and discriminating between proper and improper, human beings select the proper path, this is called viveka [conscience]. And the path of discrimination is called ‘rationality’. When one is moving forward, guided by conscience, these alternatives exist side by side: propriety and impropriety, dos and don’ts. There is movement involved and its speed may be increased, but not by much. One must examine both the propriety and impropriety of an issue; then when one takes a decision on the side of propriety, it is called “conscience”. When I examine first this side and then that side – analysing and then taking a step – naturally it is rather difficult to move quickly in this process. There is advancement, but the degree of speed is comparatively slow.” (Geo-Sentiment)

So the movement along the path of discrimination avoiding unnecessary curvatures – that straight path is rationality. Now the practical reality is that our mind normally does not move on a straight path. The reason for this is that the mind is associated with various propensities associated with different cakras. So unless the mind is liberated by becoming free from being dominated by these propensities, it is truly impossible to be rational. The result in the practical world is seen in communist countries like China where the communist ideology preaches the rational distribution of wealth to achieve absolute equality but in practice the communist officials hoard private wealth outside the country. This is because China has lost its spiritual culture of meditation which enables one to control and sublimate the mind. Shrii Sarkar warns of the dangers of abstract intellectuality saying

“Logic is a psychic survey. Such a survey may or may not be correct, therefore it is futile to follow logic blindly. The result of your psychic survey is called your rationality. This psychic survey, embedded in relativity, may or may not be correct. Intuitional vision is the best logic. Intuitional vision should be your guiding ideology. For example, it is an axiomatic truth that everything has come from the Cosmic Father and everything will merge in Him, but this truth is beyond the scope of intellectual logic. (Talks on PROUT)

Secondly one only develops the capacity to rationally distribute resources when one is in a state of spiritual realization. This is because people naturally tend to favour themselves and those whom they are attached to. So one can only be rational in a spiritual state where after feeling unity with the Supreme Being, one experiences oneself not just in one’s own body but pervading all entities of the universe. And in this process of moving towards this union external rationality through study, self-control, etc is of great aid. The key point thus to develop rationality is to avoid lower forms of Consciousness connected with the physical or psychic realms mired in various degrading desires and propensities – this is called psychic propriety. Lower forms of Consciousness or crude thinking arises from defective forms of breathing and this is why the yogic practice of breath control (pranayama) is crucial for developing rationality. Even in the spiritual realm capitalism based on greed is found in the selfish desire to enjoy bliss and to attain liberation or salvation. The solution everywhere lies in self-sacrificing love that comes from spiritual union

Thus when one is in a state of union with everyone and everything that exists then one is able to adjust with the rapidly changing world. Our planet is in the throes of tremendous change in all realms and to maintain one’s balance during this time is the true test of rationality. Those who have this self-sacrificing love will have the confidence not just to establish rationality in the realm of economic distribution of resources but the confidence to establish a new human civilization. Shrii Sarkar explains their psychology saying, 

“‘I will do the work; I must do the work. When others have been able to do it, I will also be able to do it. I am not inferior to anyone. I have also been born into the glorious human family. I am also a blessed child of Parama Puruśa.’ One who has been born a human being will certainly remain a human being if they do glorious deeds and will ultimately become an ideal follower of the Supreme Benevolence. Their life is sure to meet with glorious success. A rational person should always think in this way.”


1)    Community Democracy   
Community economic democracy is the heart of PROUT. Shrii Sarkar listed principles of economic democracy and principles of a decentralized economy. From this list the Aśt́áuṋga Artha Ganatantra (8 fold Principles of Economic Democracy have been created. They are

1)    The first requirement for economic democracy is that the minimum requirements of a particular age – including food, clothing, housing, education and medical treatment – must be guaranteed to all. Not only is this an individual right, it is also a collective necessity, because the easy availability of the minimum requirements will increase the all-round welfare of society.
2)      The second requirement for economic democracy is that increasing purchasing capacity must be guaranteed to each and every individual. In economic democracy local people will hold economic power. Consequently, local raw materials will be used to promote the economic prosperity of the local people. That is to say, the raw materials of one socio-economic unit should not be exported to another unit. Instead, industrial centres should be built up wherever raw materials are available. This will create industries based on locally available raw materials and ensure full employment for all local people.
3)      The third requirement for economic democracy is that all the resources in a socio-economic unit should be controlled by the local people. In particular, the resources which are required to produce the minimum requirements must be in local hands, and all the industries based on these resources will have to be controlled entirely by the local people. Local raw materials must be fully utilized to produce all kinds of commodities necessary for the economic development of a socio-economic unit.
Economic liberation is the birthright of every individual. To achieve it, economic power must be vested in the local people. In economic democracy the local people will have the power to make all economic decisions, to produce commodities on the basis of collective necessity, and to distribute all agricultural and industrial commodities.
Local people are those who have merged their individual socio-economic interests with the socio-economic interests of the socio-economic unit they live in. Clearly, this concept of local people has nothing to do with physical complexion, race, caste, creed, language or birth place. The fundamental issue is whether or not each person or family has identified their individual socio-economic interests with the collective interests of the concerned socio-economic unit. Those who have not done so should be branded as outsiders.
No outsider should be allowed to interfere in local economic affairs or in the system of production and distribution; otherwise a floating population will develop, causing the outflow of economic wealth from the local area. If this occurs the area will become vulnerable to outside economic exploitation and decentralized economy will be undermined.
The surplus wealth, after meeting the minimum requirements of the people in the local area, should be distributed among the meritorious people according to the degree of their merit. For example, doctors, engineers, scientists and other capable people engaged in various activities require extra amenities so that they can perform greater service to society. While a common person may require a bicycle, a doctor may require a car. But there must also be provision in the economy for reducing the gap between the minimum requirements of all and the amenities of meritorious people. To increase the standard of living of common people, they may be provided with scooters instead of bicycles. Although there is some difference between a scooter and a car, the gap that existed between a car and a bicycle has been partially reduced. The economic gap between common people and meritorious people should be reduced as much as possible and ceaseless efforts must be made in this regard, but this gap will never vanish altogether. If the gap increases, the common people will be deprived and exploitation will re-emerge in society in the guise of amenities. Decentralized economy leaves no such loophole because on the one hand the standard of the minimum requirements must be increased, and on the other hand the provision of amenities will be assessed from the viewpoint of the collective welfare.
4)      The fourth requirement for Economic Democracy is that production should be based on consumption, not profit. Most countries in the world have adopted economic systems which are profit oriented – that is, production is undertaken for profit. Producers give first preference to those items which bring maximum profit, so everywhere there is keen competition regarding the production of the most profitable goods. India is no exception. To increase the standard of living of the people, a new system of production will have to be introduced. Consumption, not profit, should be the underlying motive in the field of production.
In an economic democracy, the commodities produced by a socio-economic unit will be sold in the local market itself. As a result, there will be no uncertainty in the local economy or the economic life of the local population. In addition, money will be circulated within the local market so there will be no outflow of local capital. The possibility of an economic catastrophe in the local economy will be largely eliminated. In such a system, people’s income will have an upward trend and their purchasing capacity will continuously increase. No economic system in the world has been able to continuously increase the purchasing capacity of the people, because economic power is concentrated in the hands of a few.
For the success of economic democracy, PROUT must be implemented and the economic welfare of all people must be enhanced step by step. This in turn will lead to greater opportunities for the spiritual emancipation of human beings.
5)   The fifth requirement for economic democracy is that production and distribution should be organized through cooperatives. One of the principal reasons for the past failure of the cooperative movement is economic centralization. It is extremely difficult for cooperatives to succeed in an economic environment of exploitation, corruption and materialism, so people cannot accept the cooperative system wholeheartedly. Cooperatives are forced to compete with the monopoly capitalists for local markets, and the rights of the local people over their raw materials are not recognized. Such circumstances have undermined the success of the cooperative movement in many countries of the world.
On the other hand, decentralized economy is one of the principal reasons for the success of the cooperative system. The availability of local raw materials will guarantee constant supplies to cooperative enterprises, and cooperatively produced goods can be easily sold in the local market. Economic certainty will create increasing interest and involvement among the cooperative members, and as the local people will be confident of their economic security, they can wholeheartedly accept the cooperative system.
The cooperative system is a must, and it is only possible through decentralized economy. The cooperative system and economic democracy are inseparable.
As far as possible, agriculture, industry and trade should be managed through cooperatives. In these sectors of the economy private ownership should be abolished in stages. Only where production cannot be undertaken by cooperatives because of the complex nature or small scale of operations should it be undertaken by private enterprises. The distribution of commodities should be done through consumer cooperatives. Adequate safeguards for cooperatives will also have to be arranged.
6)      The sixth requirement for economic democracy is the local people must be employed in local economic enterprises. Unless the local people are fully employed in the local economy, unemployment can never be solved. Local people should determine the quantum of minimum requirements and the basic policies connected with their own economic well-being. If this principle is followed the problem of outside interference in the local economy will not arise at all.
Cooperatives will provide employment for local people, and also ensure that the skills and expertise of the local people are fully utilized. Educated people should also be employed in cooperatives so that they do not leave the local area in search of employment or move from the countryside to the cities.
For the development of agriculture there is a great need for specialists and technicians, so cooperatives will have to train unskilled rural people so that they can acquire the necessary skills to develop the agricultural sector. In addition, all types of agro-industries and agrico-industries will have to be developed according to the needs and resources of the local area, and these industries should be managed as cooperatives.
7)      The seventh principle of economic democracy is that commodities which are not locally produced should be removed from the local markets. As decentralized economy aims to develop local industries and create employment for the local population, those commodities which are not produced within the local area should be banished from the local market as far as possible. It is essential that the local population utilize the commodities produced in their own area to ensure the prosperity of the local economy. Initially, local commodities may be inferior, more costly or less readily available than outside commodities, yet in spite of this, locally produced commodities should still be used by the local people. If local commodities do not meet the needs and aspirations of the people, immediate steps must be taken to increase the quality, reduce the price and increase the supply of local goods; otherwise illegal imports will be encouraged.
In an economic democracy, the application of this principle is very important. If it is neglected, the local industries will gradually close down, local markets will go out of the hands of the local people and unemployment will increase. Once locally produced goods are accepted in principle, not only will local industries survive, but with their further development the local economy will thrive. The outflow of capital from the local area will be checked, and because it will remain in the local area, it will be utilized to increase production and enhance the prosperity of the local people. With the increasing demand for local commodities, large-scale, medium-scale and small-scale industries will all flourish.
8)      The eight principle of Economic Democracy is that Planning should function on various levels such as the block, district, state, national and global levels, but block-level planning will be the basic level of planning. Block-level planning is essential for economic decentralization, so it should be adopted in all blocks. There should be provision in the constitution for block-level planning for socio-economic development.
       The amount of natural and human resources varies from block to block; hence separate economic plans will have to be made for each and every block. There should be a block-level planning board in every block for this purpose. The block-level planning body will prepare a plan for the development of the block and accordingly implement the local developmental programmes. Above the block level there will be a district-level planning board. Thus, from the block level upwards, there will be planning boards to prepare and implement the local plans and programmes. It must be remembered that planning should be of ascending order, starting at the block level, and including all the levels of a socio-economic unit.

Community democracy is comprised of three processes: 1) Political Power 2) Local Education & Culture and 3) Intra-district planning.


Political Power is essential for community democracy. The principal goal of the administration at the district (bhukti) or sub-district (upabhukti) level or village (panchayat) level is to remove all the impediments and obstacles which prevent the economic needs of the people being met. One way to ensure this is Participatory Budgeting where the local community collectively plans the allocation of the budget along with the local officials and economic and ecological experts. This is organized through the networks of cooperatives. PROUT does not mandate a particular form of administration but rather allows for various types of administration as per the local culture and the needs of the local economy, It is based on this form of governance that samaja (ecoregional) governance takes place. It is to be note that the local administration is to be carried out by spiritual revolutionaries who have been acclaimed by the public for their service and sacrifice. This administration will also prevent any injustice by any individual, cooperative, village, block against others. Hence there is a check and balance system whereby the local administration exists to aid and facilitate the demands of the local economy but at the same time ensures swift action against any injustice. Such a vision gives rise to movements not just to develop local economic independence from outside exploiters but to take the local administration out of the hands of outside exploiters and mafias. Thus Prout’s economic revolution also involves a change in the local administration and the transformation of each area from being the victim of a capitalist-mafia controlled administration into a svatantra ksetra or liberated zone where the administration exists to serve the local people and their economy.

Regarding higher levels of power, PROUT does not put emphasis on the “national” level which currently dominates political thought. Prout puts primary emphasis on the bioregional (samaja) and sub-district level in the realm of economics and at the level of the world government in the realm of politics. It is the dynamics of the creation of economic democracy and cultural renaissance in various bioregions (samajas) that leads to the merger of samajas or to a federation of samajas. The driving force behind this lies in the cultivation of mystical humanism (NeoHumanism) in each culture which enables each culture to flourish without any form of imperialism. This is why the diversity of cultures in a bioregion or in a national federation will only enhance their unity as one family. In this regard Shrii Sarkar has said that the entire South Asia and Southeast Asia would merge in future.

Local Education & Culture is an important issue in PROUT. One important principle of samaja (socio-cultural bioregional) movements is that the medium of instruction from primary to tertiary level should be in the local language. As part of this also this education system should be decentralized as far as possible (to the district level at least) so that the local dialect and culture is made part of the curriculum. This is also important in case there are small languages which are spoken only in a few areas. As we have seen that psycho-economics exists to provide for the cultural and spiritual development of the local people. This is as far as possible to be managed at the district or even sub-district level. Sociological studies have shown that mysticism thrives in a decentralized environment. Hence PROUT (as a form of economics that fosters mysticism) strives for the local education and culture to be as decentralized as possible. This is the soul of community democracy.

Intra-district (block, Upabhukti) planning is the foundation of PROUT. It itself is based on participatory planning at the village level but with currently, it is only at this sub-district level that it is possible to plan for maximum economic self-sufficiency and independence. This may not be completely possible since for example medicinal plants cannot be grown everywhere but missing items can be obtained by barter trade with other blocks of the bioregion (samaja) or if necessary another bioregion. 

This planning should include the following factors – the cost of production, productivity, purchasing capacity and collective necessity. Collective necessity refers to the basic physical needs of the people in the sub-district as well as the basic higher needs (educational and spiritual needs) of the people. As far as possible, planning is required to expand the variety of material goods and of different forms of culture and knowledge available to the local people. By learning how to plan for the higher needs of their community, the local people will develop great wisdom and motivation to themselves develop culturally, intellectually and spiritually. 

As is obvious the current demarcations of sub-districts (blocks) needs to be re-demarcated based on  such factors as the physical features of the area (including river valleys, varying climatic conditions, topography, the nature of the soil, the type of flora and fauna, etc.), the socio-economic requirements and problems of the people, and their cultural aspirations. 

With regard to economic planning there are four types of economic planning. The first is People’s Economic planning which involves planning for the rural and urban industries to meet the basic needs of the local people such as food, clothing, housing, medical care, electricity, transportation and education. Consultation with economists are required to deal with such issues as the production, distribution, marketing, shipping, storage, pricing, sales, freight charges, pro forma costing, and all related activities of the essential needs of the community – this is part of the commercial economy. Finally comprehensive planning of industries and sub-industries (providing) part also needs to be done by the local people in consultation with economists – this is part of the general economic planning. The fourth form of planning is Psycho-economic planning which we have already seen involves planning for the cultural, educational and spiritual development of the local people. Psycho economics also involves economic planning to support mass education about different forms of exploitation that the community faces, in particular about the cultural degradation and cultural imperialism of corporate pseudo-culture.

2)    Eco-Cultural Democracy

Eco-Cultural Democracy is the heart of the samaja movement. Today it is not merely economic crises that confront humanity. The primary crisis is the degradation of the values and culture of communities. Due to the spread of a bastardized, vulagarized version of different cultures such as Bollywood in India, the moral and social foundations of communities across the country face debasement and destruction. As Shrii Sarkar warned,

“As you know, the mind has a natural tendency to degrade itself; it flows more easily downwards than upwards. So if some people, by virtue of their wealth, impose vulgar cinemas and dramas on others, this will break the latters’ spines and they will become paralysed. And those paralysed, spineless people will thenceforth never be able to stand unitedly against cultural or any other kind of exploitation. They will never be able to do so, because mentally they will be completely dead – their capacity to raise their heads in protest will have been crushed forever. How can they raise their heads again?
“This exploitation in the cultural sphere is accomplished by the propagation of pseudo-culture. Every honest, virtuous, rational person must fight against this pseudo-culture, and inspire others to do the same. If this is not done, the future of humanity will be sealed. It is proper for human beings to struggle for political freedom, for social emancipation; but if their cultural backbone is broken, then all their struggles will end in nothing – like offering ghee into a fire that has died out.
If one’s spine is shattered, it is impossible to hold one’s head erect. Can those whose necks and backs are crushed under the weight of pseudo-culture, be expected to hold their heads high in any sphere of life? Hence it is the bounden duty of every rational person to save innocent people from pseudo-culture.” (Exploitation and Pseudo-culture)


Local Languages must not simply survive but must thrive. This is the mission of PROUT. Shrii Sarkar was not just a spiritual and socio-economic preceptor but was also a pioneer in the realm of philology and linguistics. In addition he carried out a cultural revolution in the Bengali language and worked to develop the marginalized languages of Bihar and other parts of India. This will ensure not just cultural independence but also economic independence. Shrii Sarkar explains the importance of language for economic freedom beautifully saying,

“What does mother tongue mean? That language in which we can freely, smoothly and spontaneously express our ideas in an unobstructed environment, just as we feel loving closeness with our own mother while in conversation, is our mother tongue. For example, a man in Purnia will talk to some of his close friends only in Angika language, not in any other language.
Now, let us observe if there is a close relationship between language and socioeconomic progress and cultural development. I have already said that language is the vehicle of inner thoughts and ideas. Naturally it is inseparably linked with the Práná Dharma or fundamental characteristics of human beings. The way people can express their thoughts and ideas in their own mother tongue cannot be done in any other language. People feel uneasy when they speak in a language other than their mother tongue. If they constantly feel such uneasiness, their Práńa Shakta or vital energy will be disturbed. Consequently their vital force will be weakened. In such circumstance a sort of psychological crisis will occur in the collective mental body as well as in the individual mind. This will result in the emergence of inferiority complexes which will cause debility in the human mind. Those people whose language is suppressed lose their moral courage, initiative and power to protest. Ultimately a defeatist psychology develops in them, and as a group such people face the pros pect of total annihilation.” (The Language Issue)

There is plenty of controversy regarding dialects and theories. As the pioneering philologist of the 20th century, Shrii Sarkar has recommended that literature in all dialects should be collected. While as per standard practice, the most easily understood dialect can be made the standard dialect this dialect should take vocabulary from all dialects as well as local adivasi (indigenous) languages aside from adopting words from major languages like Sanskrit. Shrii Sarkar also have the eight signs of a truly independent language are 1) own vocabulary, 2) pronouns, 3) verb-endings, 4) case-endings, 5) oral or written literature, 6) style of intonation, 7) psycho-acoustic and inferential acoustic notes (phonosemantics), and 8) syntax. 

Local Media Control To be able to study, read newspapers, listen of the radio in one’s local language are fundamental cultural rights guaranteed in PROUT. This brings us to another important principle of samaja movements and that is that the local language should be the medium of communication in governmental, and non-governmental institutions and offices. This refers not just to the regional (samaja) language but to smaller languages as well. For example in a tribal or indigenous area, all members of the local administration would have to pass an exam in the tribal language. Furthermore official government notices should be in this language as well as the wider language of the samaja (socio-cultural bioregion). In order for the this to happen media democracy is essential. Local radio, TV, internet, mobile must as far as possible be in the hands of the local people of the region. This will ensure the voicing of local issues in the media. Right now the news of rural areas and in general of regions outside the wealthier and politically powerful areas simply is unreported. While there are many 24 hour news channels they all spew forth the same propaganda and do not report the crises that the local people are facing. This also leads to monoculture – or the imposition of corporate culture and fashions on an entire country.

Cultural Renaissance refers to renaissance in all intellectual and cultural fields in the local languages. The first effort is to resist the onslaught of pseudo culture. Shrii Sarkar has laid forth this mission for the survival of civilization as follows:

“There is also cultural life. Tendencies are of either a degenerating or an exalting nature, that is, they are either of a depraving or an elevating nature. We should encourage the elevating tendencies and discourage the depraving ones. In certain parts of this world, depraving tendencies such as pornography exist. Simply protesting will not stop these things: we will have to do something positive to check it. Such positive action will create a new stir in the human mind. Pornography and other depraving tendencies will be completely discouraged and checked. That will be our course of action. We have to create new literature, new books, new music, new songs… We have to chalk out a programme and act accordingly.” (The Rule of Rationality)

This renaissance does not just include books but also includes the development of local dance and music into forms of classical music through the introduction of mudras and ragas. This includes the development of local arts and crafts into fine arts. In addition various forms of folk drama should be developed and modern forms of drama should be introduced. In literature cultural renaissance includes the development of all forms of literature such as moral, yogic, mystical, nature as well as the various standard literary genres. This renaissance is driven by the mission of Ananda Parivara or the vision of all beings of the universe as part of one family. This leads to a relentless struggle against all forms of inequality and discrimination. Secondly it leads to the blossoming of all traditional art forms of the local civilization. Finally it leads to the acceptance of noble ideas from around the globe. Shrii Sarkar has not just given the manifesto of this mission in the treatise “Literature and the Practice of Art” but has also composed over 5000 songs. He has further laid the foundations for the renovation of all languages based on Sanskrit as the foundation for a cultural renaissance. This mission for a renaissance in the local language is a vast mission of several generations. We have very briefly mentioned a few points of this expansive mission above.

3)    Socio-economic Democracy
The fundamental fact about humanity on this planet today is that we have created so many social institutions but have not created a genuine society. Shrii Sarkar reveals this crisis in stark terms saying,

“So states and scriptures, societies and religions, acquire significance only insofar as they develop humanity to the maximum through learning, culture, physical health and economic [prosperity]. It is for the sake of developing humanity that civilization has so many institutions of different kinds, that states take their various forms, that theories proliferate, and that the scriptures abound in ordinances and regulations. What in the world does the state stand for, what is the use of all these regulations, and what are the marvels of civilization for, if people are prevented from manifesting themselves, if they do not get the opportunity to build good physiques, to invigorate their intelligence with knowledge, or to broaden their hearts with love and compassion? If, instead of tending to lead human beings to the goal of life, the state stands in the way, it cannot command loyalty, because humanity is superior to the state.” (Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles)

Shrii Sarkar has noted that the so-called primitive indigenous (adivasi) peoples are so often more civilized than the so-called “developed” communities because they have greater social unity, social brotherhood and they solve their differences without serious conflicts. At a time when global governance is another word for global corporate control via a global police state, Shrii Sarkar’s vision of economically sovereign bioregions (samajas) united by the bonds of mystical humanism (NeoHumanism) offers another path of the establishment of a global and cosmic family (Ananda Parivara). Unity comes only when there is a definite goal of ending all social and economic exploitation, creating a cultural renaissance in every language, ushering a revolution of mystical love – all based on a revolution in moral courage and moral responsibility. It is when humanity together decides to move towards that a society is born. As Shrii Sarkar says, “All human beings must attach themselves to others by the common bond of love, and march forward hand in hand, then only will I proclaim it a society.” (The Spirit of Society)

This movement towards socio-economic democracy is driven by three movements: 1) Ending All Discrimination 2) Establishing Social Equality and 3) Proto-Spiritual Psychology.


Ending Discrimination is the very purpose of developing a society by an economic revolution. This is the basic difference between PROUT and liberal ideologies. PROUT aims to annihilate all forms of discrimination whereas liberal ideologies seek to reform and remove the harsh aspects of a society based on countless forms of discrimination. Liberal ideologies are fundamentally based on economic injustice and even economic counter-revolution and hence discrimination is bound to thrive – either openly or indirectly.

In the physical realm there are five forms of disparities and discrimination in 1) Science 2) Social Progress (race, caste, patriarchy, speciesism) 3) Political 4) Economic 5) Culture (Including education). Science is a tool not just for exploitation but for enforcing discrimination. There are countless people who suffer from easily preventable diseases or even who live in poor conditions due lack of adequate technology at the local level. The very nature of science in the form of copyright is a form of criminality, because it rewards the exploitation of corporate science with absolute control not just over inventions but over Nature itself such as for example medicinal plants. The way in which the pharmaceutical companies deliberately raise the price on drugs for AIDS are essentially not just forms of enforcing discrimination but types of economic homicide. The essential part of any economic revolution is to take science out of the hands of the corporations and put under the control of autonomous institutions. Without this the lack of sharing of scientific knowledge will lead to continued exploitation and suffering.

In the social realm we must make the commitment to wipe out once and for all such social discrimination based on race. We are seeing a global resurgence of racism and it must be fought in every country – especially those countries built upon racial exploitation and violence like the countries of Americas. Regarding caste Dr. Ambedkar remarked that, “Mahatmas come and go but untouchability remains the same. Caste is the very basis of economic exploitation in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and thus one cannot launch an economic revolution in these countries without fighting caste at the grassroots level and establishing a new economy based on intercaste marriage (between savarnas and dalits/adivasis) and social equality. Patriarchy is a disease that has become truly a global crisis after the Global Economic Crisis of 2007. Not only did violence against women rise dramatically, even in countries like the United State the culture turned hostile to women. The ultimate fact about all forms of social discrimination is that women are first and foremost the victims of these forms of venomous prejudice. Shrii Sarkar has warned that one reason for the increasing violence as our society becomes more and more technologically advanced is that our increasing violence against animals will lead to violence against humanity beings. As is well known, we are amidst the Sixth Greatest Extinction of innocent plants, animals and bird species on this planet. This is all due to the omnicidal or pervasive forms of slaughter of capitalist society today. While going to another planet may escape the problem temporarily we cannot afford to colonise and destroy planets the way in which the Aryans have colonized and destroyed North and South America. Stopping violence is the first stage of ending discrimination. The final stage however lies in the depths of the human mind.

In the realm of politics we see that the exercise of power at various levels of administration is always a tool not just of exploitation but of discrimination. This is why tribes such as in Kenya will violently fight for an election – because democracy is not a form of governance but a form of exploitation by the ethnic group that wins the election. And the crux of all forms of political persecution lies in seizing the wealth of minority ethnic groups and in economically enslaving them. This is why an economic revolution is the key not just to economic freedom but to political freedom as well. Why is this so? One reason as Anthony Marx has shown is that Western nationalism was originally based on religious and ethnic cleansing. This is why as Michael Mann has shown, ethnic cleansing remains the dark side of western democracy. It is no surprise then that the export of western nationalism has led to the use of politics to perpetuate countless forms of exploitation and violence on various minority communities. This is why PROUT mandates the the local ethnic groups (such as tribes for example) must be guaranteed economic sovereignty as well as cultural rights in the local government administration. Furthermore PROUT is committed as we have seen to a cultural renaissance and cultural blending of all social groups on the basis of mystical love (loving the Supreme Beloved experienced in meditation in all beings).

In the psychic realm the primary source of countless forms of discrimination, hatred, enimity is various forms of dogmas. Dogmas are primarily found in religions and this is why religions are the primary enemy of human unity. After the demise of communism, we have seen the rise of religious extremism as people have no alternative to global capitalist exploitation. Religions are based on (1) psycho-sentiment based on such weapons as: i) The propagation of stories, myths and parables to create superiority complexes; ii) The propagation of stories, myths and parables to create inferiority complexes and iii) The propagation of fear complex and inferiority complex amongst the people, especially the  oppressed lower classes (such as lower castes). (2) physico-ritualistic observances which create a primitive collective force through collective rituals and (3) various traditions which become part of social life despite their irrationality.

We must however clearly note that rigid doctrines such as the market fundamentalism of capitalism, the dogmas of communism, the dogmas of materialism in science and so on. Shrii Sarkar spent more time combating dogmas than capitalism because it is the dogmatic mind that readily becomes a victim of capitalism and participates in the victimization of other countries by imperialist capitalist exploitation. Shrii Sarkar noted that unless the intellectual utilizes his or her psychic energies for psychic and spiritual expansion, they will tend to use their psychic energies to suppress others.

Establishing Social Equality is something that no economic or political system has taken seriously. The primary aim is either to remove serious disparities or as in the case of Pol Pot to establish equality barbarically by murderous slave labour camps. Social equality can only arise as a result of a social movement. This movement involves propagating the ideal of sama-samaja (society based on social equality) using the latest media and technology Secondly it is essential to propagate Tantra yoga which will people fight their crude states of Consciousness which give rise to a non-integral outlook that results in various prejudices developing in the mind. Third it is essential of propagate bhakti or mystical love in the local culture as it will enable people to realize their Supreme Beloved in the so-called inferior peoples despised by the local society. Fourth it is essential to arrange for the education (especially education in their rights as human beings and as communities), economic self-reliance of the persecuted sections of society and fight to increase their social status in society. Fifth these movements must culminate in the creation of strict laws to punish all forms of prejudice and to guarantee the rights and progress of  persecuted committees. Finally people’s movements must strictly watch to make sure these laws are properly implement to give speedy justice to former victims of persecution.

Proto-Spiritual Psychology is thus crucial for establishing socio-economic democracy. As we have seen the mission of PROUT’s psycho-economy is to provide an economic base for the spiritual development of the local community. Now the question arises, how does spirituality arise? According to Shrii Sarkar, when a person wholeheartedly embrace the principle of social equality (Sama-Samaja Tattva), then their spirituality spontaneously starts to develop. Shrii Sarkar’s explains how this nascent spirituality aids in the fight for social and economic justice saying,

This new-born spirituality is like a flickering candle flame and hence is called proto-spirituality. This starts with the awakening of the higher levels of the mind.  
“What happens through this proto-psycho-spirituality? When a person is guided by it to think in a particular way, and sees that one’s own benevolent mode of thinking is not reflected in other people’s activities, then that person can easily realize their true nature. So those who practise this proto-psycho-spirituality can easily recognize those demons in human framework. Then, after recognizing them, it is their duty to expose them to others also, to make people understand that they are repeatedly harming human society. It is not enough for one to personally unmask them; one must open the eyes of others also. Only in this way can the well-being of the world be promoted. Thus it will not be sufficient to lie peacefully in wait, like goody-goodies in isolated ivory towers. One will have to spread one’s wings and soar high into the blue firmament.” (An Ideology for a New Generation)
Simply detecting those who are manipulating people by narrow sentiments is not enough. Shrii Sarkar explains how exploitation starts. When a person does not focus their psychic urges in the physical realm, that psychic energy naturally tend to run after material objects. Scientists has shown how the accumulation of wealth (violating the moral principle of Aparigraha) leads to a decline not just in moral behaviour but in moral values of a person. When this greed becomes systematized such as in a capitalist society, then rampant exploitation starts to take place. Shrii Sarkar further explains how this psycho-physical movement of the mind leads to countless forms of injustice saying,
A mind, driven by many psychic pabula is the prisoner of innumerable predicaments. In such a condition the human mind becomes extroversial, multi-directional, weak and static. It is propelled by the principle of selfish pleasure, which leads it down the path of counter-evolution. It always adopts an analytical approach to life, never a synthetic one. As people have to satisfy their unrestrained psychic pabula with limited objects of wealth, they often create interpersonal and inter-group conflicts. The collective psychology arising from many objectified human minds gives rise to social inequality, economic exploitation, political repression, religious bigotry, cultural perversion and the all-round degradation of the individual and society. Crude psychic pabula cause the degeneration of individual and collective mind, and thus bring about the downfall of the society. (The Transformation of Psychic Pabula into Psycho-spiritual Pabulum)
Thus it is crucial for the society to develop a culture of channelization of psychic energy towards the spiritual realm so that the collective mind develops a proto-spiritual psychology. In the way the collective mind wil always adopt a synthetic approach to life, never an analytical one. Such a magnanimous and devotional collective mind will rise above petty quarrels and interpersonal and inter-group conflicts. Now the question is how is this possible? Firstly the collective sadhana of communities need to be strengthened. This will lead to the evolution of the higher levels of the collective mind. This is of crucial importance because it is the lack of development of the collective mind of various communities that renders them ripe for psychic and economic exploitation. Secondly to aid this collective sadhana, groups of spiritually minded individuals (Baba Pari Mandala Goshtis) need to create powerful spiritual vibrations in the collective mind. This is known as NeoHumanism as Essence. Shrii Sarkar has explained how this will dramatically transform society saying,
“Those imbibed with spiritual idealism are dedicated to the all-round elevation of humanity, free from the slavery of capitalism and the repression of communism, and established in the glory of Neohumanism. With the smooth, natural and progressive channelisation of the psychic urges of the individual and collective mind towards the Supreme Entity, psychic pabula will be converted into psychospiritual pabulum. Then each person will be a Sadvipra (spiritual revolutionary), and the whole society will be a Sadvipra Samáj – an Ánanda Parivára (Blissful Cosmic Family). So the transformation of psychic pabula into psycho-spiritual pabulum is the only panacea.” (Ibid.)
In this way we can realize how the evolution of socio-economic democracy or the generation of economic resources to end all forms of social equality based on such pernicious prejudices such caste, religion, etc. can truly establish an economic revolution. The genuine crisis facing every cooperative is the lack of morality and brotherhood/sisterhood amongst the members. This crisis can only be solved by this proto-spiritual approach to socio-economic democracy. As Shrii Sarkar once said, PROUT can only be implemented by those who are practically realizing the one Supreme Consciousness within all created beings. This is the start and the heart of PROUT’s economic revolution.


In the beautiful city of Kingston, Jamaica on September 23rd, 1979, the Preceptor of social, economic, moral, cultural, political     and spiritual revolution, Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti concluded a Dharma Mahácakra discourse. Cakra refers to a cycle or matrix of energy, Mahán means tremendous grandeur and Dharma means righteousness attained by relentless fight against all evils in the mind and in the society. So Dharma Mahácakra means the tremendous grandeur of a matrix of energies of righteousness. This matrix of energies is created by a special spiritual blessing or Mudra. This word comes from the word “mud” means “joy, intoxication, delight, union” and the word “rá” means “to give, to bestow, to surrender”.

On this evening in Kingston, Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti recited the Sanskrit shloka,

Sarvetra sukhinah bhavantu sarve santu nirámayáh;
Sarve bhadráńi pashyantu má kashcid duhkhamápnuyát.

He then began to recite the translation in English. He recited the first three lines with His standard translation saying

Let everybody be happy; 
Let everybody be free from all ailments; 
Let everybody see the bright side of everything;

However, He translated the last line in a new way, enshrining the mission of the cadres of Proutist Universal as follows,

“See that no one has to suffer.”

To take the determination to see to it that not one single man, woman, child, plant, animal or the Earth itself will suffer the brutality of exploitation, discrimination and violence is in the blood of every Proutist. As we have seen, the very mission of economics is to liberate all beings from suffering. Hence to work, sacrifice and fight a revolution to materialize this mission is the real economic development and progress. Any person who has devoted their lives to this mission is unknowingly or knowingly a Proutist. The powerful dynamo of spiritual energies vibrating in these words empowered by the blessing of Lord Anandamurti will liberate not just this planet but this universe itself. Jamaica the land of the most heinous exploitation of the slave economy and the land of the revolutionary maroons led by Queen Nanny who fought guerilla warfare and defeated the British slave capitalism was the most perfect place on earth for the revelation of this blessing.

Má kashcid duhkhamápnuyát.
“See that no one has to suffer.”

This blessing and mission was given a year after Lord Anandamurti emerged after a fast of 1950 days in Jail. He was protesting His poisoning on February 12, 1973 and demanding a Judicial Enquiry. He fasted on two cups of yoghurt water daily so as to avoid being force-fed by the government. He was told by the Indian government intelligence (CBI) officials that if the propagation of PROUT ended, a luxurious ashram in the Himalayas would be provided for teaching yoga to wealthy elites. Facing betrayal and abandonment by disciples and family as well as imminent attempts at assassination, Lord Anandamurti boldly declared to the CBI that the Prout movement would emerge 16 times stronger.

So the above words of blessing are the fruits of His austerities of a nearly five and a half year ordeal in jail under charges that were eventually dismissed by the High Court. In view of these austerities and tireless endeavours to create spiritual revolutionaries (sadvipras), to reveal new dimensions of economics and develop new forms of agriculture to empower community economic revolutionary struggle, we are bound to say with His own self-effacing gratitude to this Param-arthaván (Supreme Economic Liberator),

With the very surging of Your blood,
You have poured forth
Your own life, Your own heart
Fulfilling, bringing to life
The neglected, the rejected
And the dishonoured

Economic Democracy: The Foundation of a Neo-Humanistic Family

In 1986, Shrii Sarkar revealed a new mission for humanity – economic democracy. He noted that in no country does there exist an economic democracy. At certain times in history, economic democracy may have existed for a brief period without any conscious awareness and without any clear principles. Later in1989, Shrii Sarkar also gave the mission to create as part of the AM Gurukula (university) a department for the socio-economic liberation of women. The local region is an area of endemic poverty and women of course bear the major load. The mission of this department was to make all the local women in the surrounding areas and districts (of West Bengal and Jharkhand) economically independent as well as economically, legally, culturally and spiritually liberated. Sadly no progress has been made until the present day, to create this visionary academic institution.

Defective Approaches to Exploitation

Shrii Sarkar notes that traditionally there have been two defective reactions to abuse and exploitation. The first reaction is what he refers to as the Gandhian approach of making humanistic appeals and avoiding confrontation at all costs. If we relate this to family interactions, it means the wives idealistically believe that the exploiting husband can be changed for the better by appealing to the good in him, ignoring how she is being exploited. This approach does not hold much value for those with crude minds. Just as the Gandhian movement in India died with the rise of World War II, so also such non-violent approaches and attempts by the wife to attract his pity or plead for justice inevitably die away as the abuse increases. Often this is not because the husband is simply sadistic but because he is unable to comprehend what the wife is trying to do by appealing to his higher sentiments.

In A. Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago, there is a story of an unusually idealistic prisoner in a Russian prison who said that he was going on a hunger strike in order to protest the way in which the prisoners were being treated. This was the first time such an unheard of event had ever happened in these Russian prisons. The Jailor called him and asked him why he was trying to kill himself. The prisoner replied that justice and freedom were more important than his life. One week later, the man was transferred to a psychiatric institute. On his way out of the prison, he met the Jailor again. This time the Jailor told him that he was being transferred because the Jailor suspected that he was in fact a schizophrenic.

This is one example to show how incomprehensivle an idealistic, well-meaning wife can be to an exploitative or abusive husband. Shrii Sarkar expands on this in the following quote which should be read by all such wives who are religiously devoted to supporting their husband’s exploitation and abuse,

“To willingly subject oneself to humiliation without protest, to tolerate injustice and accept all the agonies of exploitation as divine providence without resistance, is not the mark of a good person. The characteristic of good people is to fight against injustice, to firmly adhere to truth and righteousness, to protect the helpless and fight against all evil persons. Those who are merely simple and are of a meek and goody-goody nature are not good people.” (Shravanii Purnima)

The second defective approach is that of sabotage, sarcasm, theft and violence such as in the case of traditional Robin Hoods or in the case of communism. Both of these approaches are innately inhuman because the violence stemming from vengeance is the most destructive force in human society. The great German poet Schiller wrote the play “Die Raubers” which showed how a man started out as an idealistic Robin Hood against oppression but then gradually became corrupted by his own violence and killed the woman he loved.

Similarly, in the home, so many wives become violent and abusive to their children, daughter-in-laws so as to cope with the trauma of the abuse meted out to them in their married lives. So often, one can see good women who end up devoting themselves to sacrcasm, petty cruelty and other baneful forms of expressing their resentment. Often this leads to the poisoning of the entire family life as they become addicted to emotional and verbal vindictiveness as a way of life. What this creates is a society in which the only real emotion is in the sadistic thrill of crushing another person psychologically. In general movies and popular culture are essentially a celebration of violence which is even seen in endless film scenes of car crashes, explosions and catastrophes. There are conservatives who talk of ridding our society of these violent tendencies but it is impossible because this violence becomes rooted in family life. Hence the battle against violence in our society must begin within the family, in the battle against the day-to-day, minute-to-minute forms of disrespect, humiliation, ridicule, sarcasm, slander and shouting. This is a struggle to live out ahimsa because as Shrii Sarkar says in discussing social justice,

“Violence does not solve any problem, because whatever poisonous tendencies of the individual and collective minds may be destroyed by violence, the seeds of those tendencies remain embedded in the mind itself. When the pressure of circumstances is relaxed they may again sprout forth, creating even greater evil.”

Economic Systems

Ultimately what is needed is to create a foundation for the status of the wife in the family. This means firstly an economic foundation and then a spiritual foundation. Let us look at Shrii Sarkar’s categories of micro-level economic systems. The first and worst category is the commune system. In this system, all individual enterprise and control over the economy is brutally smashed by a handful of men who control the economy in the name of an ideology or religion. In religious societies, one sees women leading lives of economic slavery and abuse. It does not matter which religion is involved. The reason so much abuse and slavery is implemented is because the women slaves are told that everything being done to them is as the commandments of the ideology or religion, which thus justifies the endless sacrifice and the abuse. Two hundred years ago in most parts of the world, women were worked like slaves and beaten up at will by their husbands, and often abandoned when no longer wanted. The progress in women’s rights has only increased the violence. Shrii Sarkar explains the reasons why in the discourse “Sati and Widowhood,” as follows:

“Today the clattering chariot wheels are turning. That din is making the hearts of the opportunists quake. This is the decree of Fate. The pace of change is fast accelerating. Women in many communities of the world still do the household chores, but the men are earning the money. That is why the men are in an advantageous position. The women are still subservient to the men and the men want to keep them in that state of servitude. But when the situation changes, this cheap slave labour will escape from men’s control.”

The next system is the share-cropping system, where the wife has limited economic freedom in the form of an allowance but she still slaves away from morning until night and the profits remain with the husband. It is remarkable that those men who suffered from the share-cropping system, be it in India today or in America today in farms staffed with illegal Mexican immigrants, treat their wives usually as they themselves were treated – as slaves. There are many husbands today who extract hundreds of hours of labour from their wives – doing the household work, working for them as private secretaries – and the husbands given them nothing, perhaps a mere pittance in return. This is exploitation pure and simple just like in any sweatshop.

The next economic system, Shrii Sarkar talks about is private enterprise. This involves similar exploitation, but combined with this is very subtle brainwashing and propaganda to convince the wife that she is happy and better off being a slave. Basically the husband manages the wife or keeps her engaged in work by a system of cheap rewards, insincere flattery and veiled threats when there is resistance. Even regular outright abuse is made acceptable to the women by expressions of regret, drowning the wife in the husband’s self-pity and of course romantic attention. The end result is that, as surveys show, even when the woman is earning more than the man, she still does 70% of the housework.

The final economic system is the cooperative system. According to Shrii Sarkar, this is the ideal system, because in this system the economy flourishes. Every member of the joint-family or cooperative is encouraged to develop themselves morally and skillfully to become an equal owner/manager to express themselves on an equal footing. This allows creativity, enthusiasm and efficiency due to close camaraderie resulting from egalitarian relationships. Shrii Sarkar also proposes that such a cooperative system must be based on spiritual meditation (yoga) in order to become free from enslavement to personal limitations and handicaps, propensities and prejudices. The expanded consciousness arising from regular meditation will enable human beings to overcome any latent abusive and exploitative tendencies. The result will be the end of domestic abuse and exploitation. Shrii Sarkar clearly states,

“In every field of collective life there should be cooperation among the members of society. Where this cooperation is between free human beings, each with equal rights and mutual respect for each other, and each working for the welfare of the other, it is called “coordinated cooperation”. Where people do something individually or collectively, but keep themselves under other people’s supervision, then it is called “subordinated cooperation”. In each and every stratum of life, we should do everything with coordinated cooperation and always avoid subordinated cooperation.”

This statement, if applied to husband and wife relationships, bodes well for a loving and peaceful family life.

Economic Dignity

What is proposed here is to apply Shrii Sarkar’s concepts of economic democracy to the micro-level of the domestic household. The first requirement for economic democracy is that the minimum requirements at any given point in time must be guaranteed to all members of the family. Often one sees the husband buying frivolous items and the children being indulged, while the wife does not have respectable clothes. Similarly is the case for education where in western Bengal and the neighbouring states of Bihar and Jharkhand the literacy rate is half that of males and no importance is given to the education of wives.

What is required for every human being is food, shelter, clothing, education and medical care. So, for example, to deny the wife medical treatment in her old age due to her self-sacrificing nature is heinous on the part of the husband. It is shameful. Economic democracy, if applied to the household, would make it 100% immoral in the eyes of society, and such a husband would become a social outcaste for such conduct. As Shrii Sarkar says in a discourse on “Social Justice”,

“What I mean to say is that those who take advantage of people’s simplicity or ignorance are veritable demons in the form of humans, and those who deceive people by taking advantage of their emotions, inspired by the ideal of sacrifice, are even worse than demons.”

The second requirement for economic democracy is that increasing purchasing capacity (along with inflation) must be guaranteed to each individual. In other words, just as the husband is free to spend more when the family economy is thriving, the wife and children have equal right to take part in any such windfall. Furthermore, the wife has the right to become economically independent and involved in the economic life of her community, just as much as she has the right to be involved in the spiritual and social life of her community. This means she should control her income as well as choose when and where she wants to work. While some men prevent their wives from working, others utilize their wives and children to serve as bonded labourers for a local exploiters. In general, the wife must have the right to be involved in local cooperatives and other grassroots organizations, to get scope to develop herself and the community. No husband should thwart his wife’s participation in the community due to his jealousy, insecurity or any other reason.

The third requirement for economic democracy is that the power to make all economic decisions must be placed in the hands of the family members. It must be a joint decision instead of a unilateral one. Just as, on a global scale, countries make multilateral agreements to reach peace, similar is what must prevail in the family realm. This means in, in Shrii Sarkar’s own words, “Economic liberation is the birthright of every individual.” Thus the wife would be expected by society to take full part in the economic life of the family as well as the community. It should not be merely up to the whims of the husband. A culture of rational discussion, allowing the wife and even older children to express their views to arrive at a consensus is part of a healthy family based on coordinated cooperation and not subordinated cooperation.

The fourth requirement for economic democracy is that outsiders must be strictly prevented from interfering in the family economy. Often it happens, not just in regard to economics but with other issues also related to family life, that in-laws become tyrants over the wife. In India, every 90 minutes, a woman is set on fire by her in-laws over dowry deaths. Dowry is against the economic dignity of a woman who cannot be made to give dowry simply because she is a woman. It is not enough to simply take strong action after the deaths. What is required is to create a new vision of what marriage is and what a family and joint-family is. This involves not just a vision of freedom for family members but also dedication to the physical, psychological and spiritual welfare of the other family members based on the spiritual vision of them as divine beings. It also requires the spirit of marriage as a mission in which husband and wife and entire joint-family are embarking on a collective mission for social, cultural, spiritual service and liberation of every member of human society.

Nevertheless, it must be the rule that the best system in all spheres of life is the cooperative economic system. This applies not merely to the community but to the family as well.

Reclaiming Our Dignity

“Humanity, standing as it does at the top of the evolutionary ladder, may sometimes feel proud and in a weak moment commit an act of meanness. Yet one should always remain vigilant against this. The evolutionary forces have not stopped. The theatre of action has shifted to the psychic level. Evolution is now expressing its power in the daily struggle of men and women everywhere to attain dignity.”

The above quotation of Shrii Sarkar shows us that the struggle for dignity is the task of the modern era. As the postmodern era has come to an end, this struggle is once again coming to the fore of the collective psychology. This is because violence on this planet and against women in particular has reached unprecedented levels and we all feel that we cannot live like this anymore, don’t we?

Currently we hear visions of women’s dignity based on legal definitions and quoted by politicians who only increase the suffering of suffering women. Such legal definitions do not create ideals that move people’s hearts. More importantly, legal definitions do not provide spiritual sustenance that is the life-force of so many women who endure suffering. Traditional religions and their scriptures all provide negative images of women and women’s role in human society. Some try to make these religions progressive but ultimately it is all a form of self-delusion.

Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar has created a new paradigm, a new sentimental ideal for human dignity and explains why in fact women are the most dignified section of humanity.
Social Dignity

When it comes to abused women, dignity starts with resisting degradation by refraining from pettiness, vengeance, cynicism, amorality or general moral corruption. This is an enormous task for someone who is facing regular verbal abuse, economic exploitation and occasional physical abuse. It is a continual battle to lift one’s emotions to a higher level so that once can provide genuine love and caring to family members.

In addition, both women and men face the degradation meted out by struggling for survival in a consumer capitalist society. Women are taught to value themselves solely based on the material possessions and personal beauty. Through films, pornography and video games, men are infused with the psychology of rapists and killers. This is why men are often hollow internally and have not developed a rich emotional life after growing up in such cultures. Such men often become exploitative and abusive.

Women facing abuse are likewise often internally hollow due to rampant materialistic greed and therefore never develop a deeper sense of identity. Too often, religions, instead of providing spiritual sustenance merely re-enforce patriarchal subjugation with priests exhorting the suffering woman to adjust, adapt and server her man better.

Paradoxically, the very fact that women are the most subjugated section of human society renders them the most ripe for revolution. It is because they have to fight for their fundamental rights in every sphere, at every moment, every day and even in the night, that women develop enormous reservoirs of power that can be harnessed for revolution – not just in the home or in the realm of liberating women but revolution in every sphere of life – political, economic, cultural and spiritual. Shrii Sarkar explains the reason for this by noting that in actuality, revolution always is centred around sentiments and that the foremost quality of revolutionaries is the capacity to arouse and channelize the sentimental legacy of the people towards universal justice and love. And Shrii Sarkar explains why women have more sentimental power (and hence more power of bhakti or mystical love) saying:

“The word kaeshik means an external expression of anger, shame, hatred, compassion, love, affection, attraction, repulsion, etc., to an extreme degree. People cry out in their extreme joy; they cannot contain their happiness within the narrow confines of their nerves…People cannot suppress their overflowing emotions of love, affection, compassion, etc., nor keep them under control; they must give vent to their feelings. Later they may regret what they said; they will feel that it was not right to express their innermost feelings. This expression of sentimentality varies from creature to creature, from human to human, from one class to another, and from one sentimental group to another. The general term for this expression of sentimentality is kaeshik. Under the spell of kaeshik, one may commit suicide. People climb the highest mountain summits, sail into the blue void and touch the inaccessible poles, goaded by this kaeshik propensity…
      The kaeshik propensity is more manifest in women than in men. There is a greater degree of sentimentality in women. Consequently, women can perform extraordinary feats that men cannot. Had these potentialities been harnessed for constructive activities, there would have been many benefits for the world, but as this aspect of women’s psychology is not known, society could not utilize their potential fully.”

The essential root of a revolutionary lies in the spiritual real; in other word a woman’s revolutionary fervor begins in the human spirit. It is because women who have survived and triumphed over humiliation, exploitation and abuse are forced to undergo a revolution of their spirit, they often have the capacity to create a revolution in their society as well. Several women mystics created partial revolutions in their society despite living during the era of absolute dominance of religious patriarchy in the Middle Ages. Shrii Sarkar captures the spirit of such mystic revolutionaries and calls out to them saying,

“With cosmic ideation set out from the starting point of moralism and advance towards supreme realization. Your feet may bleed, cut by the thorns scattered on the road, the sky, rent asunder by the lightning and crashing thunder of the fearful storm, may fall on your head, but proceed you must. You are a born fighter. To flee the battle in fear and hide like a corpse in the hills is ultravirous to your existential vitality. You must advance towards the Supreme Entity, your original abode, smashing all obstacles on the path. From time immemorial you have been listening to the sweetness of His divine call. Can you remain oblivious to it, engrossed in your little world created by Máyá (Illusion)?” (Microcosm and Macrocosm)


Explaining Neohumanist Education, Shrii Sarkar advocates that it is women who should be the primary educators of children (especially small children). This stance is grounded in the firm conviction of Shrii Sarkar that women are more spiritually and devotionally inclined than men. Why is it the case that women are more devotional? Devotion starts as sentiment or emotion, for it is with emotional force that we take all our existence away from internal and external objects (ideas, complexes, attachments) and run towards the Supreme Beloved in the very core of our being. Since women are usually more emotionally mature, articulate, powerful and evolved than men, they are naturally more capable of devotion or mystical love and hence tend to become more sanctified than men. Shrii Sarkar stated that if women can shatter their mental bondages and convert their emotional power into devotional power, they can achieve tremendous spiritual service in the society beyond the capacity of men.
This vision of women as empowered by their emotions, sentiments and mystical love is not found either in traditional religion or in traditional intellectual feminism.

Traditionally, feminists try to follow the male path of intellectual analysis. However, this is fighting with your knock-out hand tied behind your back. It is time for women to assert their emotional and devotional logic and dynamism in both academic and social discourse. This involves women liberating themselves from the materialism of male capitalist society.

This purity gives one the power to run towards the true Beloved within one’s very Self. The greater the intensity with which one runs after the Beloved, the greater becomes one’s sanctity and devotion. Since women naturally tend to be more extreme in demonstrating their love, for this very reason, women become sanctified more easily than men.
It is the joyous imperative of all women to awaken each other to the irrepressible beauty of devotion or mystical love. Through their indomitable collective love, men will be awakened and learn to develop unselfish love. It is women who will provide the impetus for a multidimensional nuclear-revolution.

Supreme Dignity

For Shrii Sarkar, however, attaining sanctity is not enough. A sanctified person attains dignity only to the degree with which they perform selfless service. Traditionally, women are encouraged to perform selfless service in a subjugated manner. Even modern feminism encourages women to serve by subjugating their emotions to adjust with a male-dominated social culture. Shrii Sarkar states that women are often capable of greater sacrifice and nurturing of those whom they care for. When one becomes a sanctified being, one realizes the presence of the Supreme Beloved in everything and everyone. Male spiritualists are often satisfied with the bliss of this realization just as in the home some men often remain satisfied with feeling love for the family without any urge to express it. Generally, sanctified women fell a greater and more intense urge to lovingly serve the Lord as manifested in all of humanity. Hence Shrii Sarkar has enjoined,

“You, as the most dignified section of human society, do something for the universal human beings!”

We need to communicate and fully imbibe this vision of women’s dignified status throughout the world. Most importantly, we need to bring this vision to women facing psychological and economic exploitation by men. Thought they are mightily damaged and crushed by endless denigration, though they are riddle with injected guilt for nameless and non-existent crimes, we need to gently pick them up, catch their hands and bring them along the path of revolutionary love.

We need to make these dear, dear women understand that their present love is servile love, and explain to them that they deserve the deepest form of reverential love from their husbands and children, since by their nature they are the most dignified beings in society. We need to make them understand that they have a mission in life and it is not to be a physical commodity or emotional slave to the dictatorial insecurities of a single man. Rather they are to realise their responsibility to utilize their emotional and devotional power to liberate themselves, to liberate the entire humanity and to love all other beings in this universe. In the words of Shrii Sarkar,

“We stand to create a powerful, dynamic and upsurging social consciousness, especially among women, so that they are inspired to rise, abolish dogma and annihilate all symbols of slavery, and usher in a new era of coordinated cooperation and glorious achievement. Let women be the vanguard of a new revolution which humanity must achieve for a glorious tomorrow.” (Women’s Rights)

Excerpted from the author’s book Wife Abuse: Breaking It Down and Breaking Out.

Economic Democracy vs Political Democracy, Film

Can We Do It Ourselves, an educational 60 minutes movie about the need for democracy in the economic arena. From its main premise, that Sweden is a political but not an economic democracy, the film develops and substantiates arguments and practical suggestions for making the world a more economic-democratic place. With input and examples from various countries and regions.

Movie story line: Can We Do It Ourselves focuses on economic philosophy with an emphasis on the concept of economic democracy. The film helps viewers understand the difference between a market economy in which consumer demand drives a company's supply of goods and services, and a capitalist economy in which private owners control production and hold a right to the profits. There is strong support for the potential promise of a democratic economic model in which workers have more of a say in business operations than either market or capitalist models.

ecdemshotInput from European and American economic experts as well as general consumers helps to unveil the complexities of these economic models by presenting the potential benefits and pitfalls of each. Many of the interview subjects argue in favor of greater democracy in the workforce, highlighting a need to establish a system that emphasizes the importance of workers' welfare.

Political scientist Bo Rothstein argues that capitalism essentially sees workers selling themselves into slavery. Companies built around a workers' cooperative, however, center more on the well-being of those providing labor over the maximization of profit. By making managers responsible to the workers, instead of the other way around, the quality of work improves. The driving philosophy in putting more power in the hands of the workers is that they will take more pride in what they're doing when they are, in essence, working for themselves.

Janerik Larsson, former VP of the Confederation of the Swedish Enterprise, is the primary voice of dissent throughout the film, cautioning that proponents of a democratic economy are trying to make an ideology out of a reality that is too fluid and ever changing in nature. He claims that he has not seen effective, practical economic democracy, and weighs in favor of a market economy within a democratic society instead of an actual democratic economy.

Can We Do It Ourselves calls into question the fact that democracy prevails in so many models of world politics, yet not in economic spheres. By examining the key differences between market, capitalist and democratic economies, the filmmakers are able to present the many perceived benefits of empowering the working class and re-calibrating the scales of corporate influence.

End Unemployment Now – Despite Congress; Batra

End Unemployment Now_MECH_02.inddDr. Ravi Batra is out with a new book on the alternative to capitalism and communism in the US, this time focusing on how to end unemployment now — despite Congress, that is.

Video interview: Dr. Batra airs some of his current main ideas (30 min.)

Material by and with Dr. Batra on PROUT Globe (click and scroll)

Salient ideas of Dr. Batra's new book:

  1. The main cause of our myriad troubles is monopoly capitalism, which is a system dominated by giant companies that charge high prices, pay low wages and extract huge productivity from employees. Consequently, supply remains high, while demand stagnates, resulting in overproduction and hence layoffs; so the solution lies in breaking up the behemoths and returning to free markets, where small firms engage in price and quality competition.
  2. That requires new legislation and the cooperation of Congress, which itself is either divided or beholden to monopoly capitalists. So we can’t count on the legislature.
  3. The president can bring about a competitive-capitalism effect, though not actual free markets, without recourse to Congress.
  4. A competitive-capitalism effect occurs when, through certain official proclamations or policies, a market arrives at a similar outcome that would prevail in the presence of small firms operating as competitive enterprises.
  5. With the help of the agencies such as the FDIC and the CFTC that work for him, the president can bring about this effect in several industries including banking, oil and gasoline, pharmaceuticals as well as foreign trade.
  6. The FDIC has the legal authority to start its own bank, which could compete with banking giants and bring down interest rates on credit card balances from the current range of 15 – 30 percent to just 5 percent.
  7. The CFTC can legally raise margin requirements for oil futures to control speculation and bring petrol price down to $20 per barrel from the triple digit levels that prevailed until mid-2014, in spite of a relentless decline in American petroleum imports. In 1998 even a puny fall in these imports brought oil down to just $12 per barrel.
  8. The president and the Federal Reserve should and can eliminate our trade deficit by doing what China and Japan do; he can offer an export-oriented exchange rate to raise our exports to the level of our imports, so that we follow a policy of balanced free trade.
  9. The measures described above will raise consumer demand and create at least 5 million manufacturing jobs within a year. They will help retire federal debt, slowly but surely, and put an end to poverty.

The Eight Principles of Economic Democracy

Aśt́áuṋga Artha Ganatantra

By Taraka 2015


Principle I: Minimum requirements guaranteed to all
Principle II: Increasing purchasing capacity guaranteed to all
Principle III: All resources in a socio-economic unit should be controlled by the local people
Principle IV: Production should be based on consumption, not profit
Principle V: Production and distribution should be organized through cooperatives
Principle VI: Local people must be employed in local economic enterprises
Principle VII: Commodities which are not locally produced should be removed from the local markets
Principle VIII: Block-level planning will be the basic level of planning

© All rights reserved by Proutist Universal

Eight Principles of Economic Democracy

Aśt́áuṋga Artha Ganatantra

Today as so many people around the world are being thrust into poverty in the latest crisis of the Global Economic Depression, are we not honour-bound as human beings to ask why? Why is it that a few elite bankers playing with banks and stocks can destroy banks and corporations and then ask the people to pay the price by using the people’s money to bail out these corporations? Why should poor people all over the world have to pay the penalty for the crimes of others? Why should poor people have to starve because Western speculators play games with the price of food? Before there was a dual policy of ruthless plunder for non-European nations and American corporate control for Europe – but now there is only one policy of using currency and stock speculation to drive countries like Greece into bankruptcy and then stripping the corpse of these national economies like wolves gnawing on the last bit of flesh of a deer. More importantly the people of formerly rich nations need to ask their conscience, why they have tolerated the economic immiserisation of countless people in the Third World and the Fourth World (world of stateless indigenous peoples or adivasis)? Similarly the rich and middle class in these poorer nations like India and Nigeria need to ask themselves the same questions.  Now that the chickens have come home to roost, it is important that we must have genuine global brotherhood and sisterhood. This starts with facing the facts about economic tyranny and having the courage to dream and to fight for economic democracy for everyone, for every community in our global village. This is why our rallying cry is,

Economy of the People, 
By the People and 
For the People!
O People, take back
Your economy!

Every freedom struggle begins with a vision of freedom and that is precisely what we are trying to ignite by discussing the principles of economic democracy with you.  Evgenia Ginzburg, survivor of the Gulag stated that humanity spent the 20th century running between Hitler and Stalin. We can no longer afford to continue misery to millions by persisting in this two dimensional suicidal approach. In the pioneering discourse on Economic Democracy, Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, the propounder of the Progressive Utilisation Theory gave the mission of the freedom struggle of the 21st century in these words,

“In all the democratic counties of the world, economic power is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals and groups. In liberal democracies, economic power is controlled by a handful of capitalists, while in socialist countries economic power is concentrated in a small group of party leaders. In each case, a handful of people – the number can be easily counted on one’s fingertips – manipulate the economic welfare of the entire society. When economic power is vested in the hands of the people, the supremacy of this group of leaders will be terminated, and political parties will be destroyed forever.”

These principles or dimensions of economic democracy are compiled from three seminal discourses by Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, the propounder of PROUT (Progressive Utilisation Theory), on Economic Democracy, Economic Decentralization and Block-level Planning. These different principles are interrelated and each principle upon deeper analysis will be found to state or imply the other principles. The commentary is also derived from the works of Shrii Sarkar.  These principles are a kind of Yoga or Union.

The Aśt́áuṋga Yoga popularized by Yogi Patainjali are the eight principles of attaining Union (yoga) of the unit Self with the Supreme Self. These eight principles are the principles by which the members of our local, regional, national, global and Cosmic Society will attain Union with each other in the form of a matrix of localized economies in order to create a Universal Family based on Universal Love that is called Ananda Parivara.

As Shrii Sarkar has revealed,

“We must have Yoga in all the three strata of life. If there is Yoga only in the spiritual stratum and there is no Yoga in the psychic and physical strata, what will happen? The very existence of human beings will become unbalanced, human equipoise will be lost. So we must have Yoga, or rather Yoga-oriented movement, in each and every sphere of life.

The crudest portion of human existence is the physical body. Now, what is this physical body? For human beings there is the external physical body and there is the inner projection of the physical body in the mind. You see an elephant in the external physical world, and you see the projection, that is, the extro-internal projection of that elephant in your mind. But for the creating Entity, for the Causal Matrix, there is no external world, so there is no physical world. For Him there is a psychic world and a spiritual world. But, for human beings there are three worlds – physical, psychic and spiritual. So, for us, our physical world is nothing but an ectoplasmic (mental) world of the Creator. While doing any work, while being engaged in any action we should remember the fact that whatever we see, whatever we do, is within the ectoplasmic scope of the Creator. This will be our Yoga in the physical sphere.

Suppose there is a drop of water in an ocean. When the drop feels its unity with the ocean, the drop no longer remains as a drop, it becomes the ocean. But when it feels its separation from the ocean, it is nothing but a drop of water. So, when a human being feels his/her unity with the Supreme Lord and feels that he/she is not an ordinary person, but the blessed child of the Supreme Father and when becomes one with him, then he/she is no longer an ordinary person. He/she acquires immense power, immense vitality, infinite vitality and this is your Yoga in the physical sphere. You should always remember that a man or a woman is an ordinary person when separated from the Supreme Father, but he/she becomes Supreme when one with the Supreme. This we do with the help of our Guru Mantra. This is Yoga in the physical sphere.” (What is Yoga?)

How does this yoga in the physical sphere related to the path of social, economic, cultural and political justice? Shrii Sarkar explains saying

“To establish a heavenly kingdom in this mundane world, human beings will have to fight tirelessly against the internal and external demons. But this does not mean that the demons should become the object of ideation. Brahma Sádhaná (endeavour to merge the mind in Consciousness) is entirely different from jad́a sádhaná (the pursuit of matter) because it focuses on the goal and not the clash. Spiritual aspirants who struggle to expand the self should never compromise themselves with those forces which try to thwart the process of supreme expansion. The path of self-expansion and righteousness (dharma sádhaná) is the path of valour. There is no place for inertness or cowardice on such a path.

In the social sphere, the perennial struggle of human beings should not be undertaken individually but collectively. Those who provide leadership in the social struggle must be established in Yama and Niyama (code of yogic morality). Such people I call sadvipras (spiritual revolutionaries).

How will sadvipras be created? They will be created in the continued endeavour to expand the self. By reciting holy scriptures or by acquiring a few Sanskrit titles, one cannot succeed in spiritual pursuit. Brahma (the Supreme) does not care who is of noble descent or high caste. The important thing is to continue sádhaná. One’s life can only be properly evaluated in the light of that struggle.

The struggle in collective life, with the sadvipras in the position of leadership, will continue endlessly. Sadvipra after sadvipra will come: the torch carried by one will be handed over to the next. But the sádhaná of individual life is not endless – it culminates in the attainment of Brahma [Consciousness]. Those who believe that they must first attain success in individual life before participating in the collective struggle will not succeed. They will never bring expansion in their individual lives if they ignore collective welfare. To be worthy of being sadvipras, individuals will have to concentrate on both intellectual and social development. Otherwise, no matter how lofty the word Dharma [sublime righteousness] might sound in theory, it will remain as a big hoax in the practical field. All spiritual aspirants must strive to become sadvipras, and that, too, from this very moment. If a person who takes bribes starts an anti-bribe campaign he will become an object of ridicule. One will have to make an earnest endeavour to develop oneself thoroughly; mere rhetoric will not do. Only those endowed with sincerity and devotion [mystical love] can be called righteous, and can successfully propagate Dharma.”

->> Principle I

Correction – What Correction!

(Oct 16, 2014) – “There’s been a significant correction in U.S. equities and that’s shaken investor confidence,” Toby Lawson, head of futures, options and cash equities trading for Asia-Pacific at Newedge Group SA in Sydney, told Bloomberg today. “Geopolitical risks and the spread of Ebola are adding to global economic uncertainties. When the market is a state of flux, everything gets amplified,” Lawson added.

In our opinion, the above statement is a smokescreen intended to cover up both economic exploitation and the fact that financial heads do not have anything rational to say about the present dire situation. Instead, what really needs to be corrected is the accelerating inequality of wealth distribution, and not the price of financial papers.

Shrii Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, the founder of PROUT, emphasized that the two main reasons for serious economic downturns are 1) extreme concentration of the value of wealth, and 2) monetary standstill – “… money remains inert or unutilized because capitalists think that if the money is allowed to roll freely then their profits will decrease, even though it will bring relief to the common masses.”

Incidentally, Credit Suisse, a very large commercial bank, issued its annual report on wealth last Monday, on the same day that the present violently downward trend of the financial markets emerged. The report states that the world’s richest 1% own about half of the total global wealth, and that although that wealth has grown to a new record – $263 trillion, more than twice the $117 trillion calculated for 2000 – 90 per cent of the world´s population owns only 13% of it.

Among the many imbalances and disparities documented by the Swiss report, it was found that the overall wealth in the US has grown at a faster pace than incomes. The authors warned it was a trend that could lead to recession. China now has more people in the top 10% of global wealth holders than any other country except for the US and Japan, having moved into third place in the rankings thereby overtaking France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, the Guardian noted.

First Principle of Economic Democracy

"People will have to opt for either political democracy or economic democracy. That is, they will have to choose a socio-economic system based on either a centralized economy or a decentralized economy. Which one will they select?"
– Shrii Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, propounder of PROUT

1) The first requirement for economic democracy is that the minimum requirements of a particular age – including food, clothing, housing, education and medical treatment – must be guaranteed to all. Not only is this an individual right, it is also a collective necessity, because the easy availability of the minimum requirements will increase the all-round welfare of society.

Commentary: As Schopenhauer noted, ideas go through three phases – first they are ridiculed, second they are violently opposed and finally they are accepted as common sense. Throughout history slaves, saints and scholars have proclaimed, fought for and died for this most basic, common sense principle. All rights become meaningless without the right of live. Can there be nothing more common sense than this principle? This principle has been stated by Shrii Sarkar in the form of a Sanskrit aphorism (sutra).

Yugasya sarvanimnaprayojanaḿ sarveśáḿ vidheyam.
[The minimum requirements of an age should be guaranteed to all.]

However this principle has been rejected by the majority of economists since the field began. This is because the very meaning and mission of the word economics has been violated. The English word “economics” means literally the laws of the household of a community. The idea of every community and the entire human community as one household, with one hearth of one family has never been accepted by the so-called civilized communities although it is common sense to many so-called backward, indigenous communities. The current system of economics is based on the slave household where a small group of people fatten themselves on the misery of the rest. A new, genuine economics thus must find its mission in the protecting and thriving of every single member of our human household and this includes our plant and animal brethren as well as the rivers, mountains and the Earth itself.

From this vision comes PROUT’s mission that the foremost branch of economics is People’s Economics. Shrii Sarkar defines this as follows:

“People’s economy deals with the essential needs of the people in general – the production, distribution, marketing, shipping, storage, pricing, sales, freight charges, pro forma costing, and all related activities of such essential needs. Most importantly, it is directly concerned with the guaranteed provision of minimum requirements such as food, clothing, housing, medical treatment, education, transportation, energy and irrigation water. Continuous improvement in and ready availability of these requirements is the key factor in people’s economy.

The minimum requirements can be assured through guaranteed purchasing capacity which should be enshrined in the constitution as a fundamental or cardinal human right. This will give the citizens of the country legal power if their minimum requirements are not met, hence the necessity of purchasing capacity will be reinforced by constitutional law. As people’s economy will deal with minimum requirements and people’s subsistence problems, it must take precedence over other parts of the economy.

People’s economy should also be concerned with the development of both private and cooperative industries. Private industries would be limited in size and scope to prevent monopoly production and exploitation, and would be required to function as cooperatives once they grow too large. Cooperative industries are the best means of independently organizing people so that they take collective responsibility for their livelihood.

People’s economy also includes employment for all; the eradication of mass poverty; the development of rural economy; the phase-wise socialization of land into the hands of those who work physically or intellectually for proper production; practical training programmes to impart skills which enable people to find employment in their immediate urban or rural locality; work placement; and the transportation, trans-shipment, loading and unloading of any materials, even if they are not economically viable in the short-term. It is also concerned with the generation of cheap power and the supply of water, which are essential if people are to control their local economies. Finally, it includes economic decentralization, cooperative dynamo and block-level planning.” (“Quadri-Dimensional Economy”)

The second and older word for economics is the Sanskrit word Artha. Artha as per Shrii Sarkar means the temporary removal of physical, psychic (intellectual, emotional, cultural, intuitional) and spiritual suffering. Hence economics or Artha is a libratory science. The current system of economics was developed by agents of the British and American Empires and is designed as a propaganda tool to justify the economic looting of criminal elites and to justify the violence they use to attain their goals. A new genuine Artha must find its mission in awakening the minds of the exploited people to their slavery, awakening our minds to the vision of being collectively in control of the destiny of the local economy and awakening our hearts to the countless revolutionary struggles to seize control of their local economy from the hands of the exploiters.

From this vision comes PROUT mission for Psycho Economics. Shrii Sarkar defines it as follows,

“Psycho-economy has two branches. The first branch endeavours to eradicate exploitative and unjust economic practices, behaviours and structures. It will counter all economic and psycho-economic exploitation and make people aware of how capitalists, in their singular or collective roles, exploit society and create unhealthy, artificial demands which not only poison the mind but encourage dangerous habits detrimental to psychic sanctity and expansion. The first and foremost duty of psycho-economics is to wage a tireless fight against all degenerating and dehumanizing economic trends in society.” (“Quadri-Dimensional Economy”)

The availability of the minimum essentials of life plays a vital part not only in achieving a world family but also in the development of the personality. Countless youths are destroyed every year by the violence of adults who are traumatized by poverty. Poverty it has been found affects the brain and decreases one’s cognitive capacity. When one loses self-respect and lacks confidence, one not only loses capacity to reason, one also loses one’s conscience and hence starts down the dark road of theft, violence and addiction to drugs or alcohol. This is why the guarantee of minimum requirements is so crucial for society today. In Scandinavia, for example in the past, the purchasing capacity of the people is high and they enjoy a good standard of living. Because of this they do not face the problem of overpopulation – which is serious problem only in societies with extreme economic inequality based on extreme economic tyranny of 1% of the elites.

Finally we should note that guaranteeing the welfare of everyone will lead to the all-round welfare of society. Let us be clear as to what a real society is. It has nothing to do with nations, races, religions and other vivisections of the Cosmic Family. Nor does it have anything to do with species-ism or the exploitation and genocide of animal and plant species and the assault on the planet itself. As Shrii Sarkar so simply reminds us,

“If we take the full meaning of the term society into consideration, it will be seen that till now human beings have not been able to form a real society. If India builds a society for only Indians, Pakistan for only Pakistanis and England for only the English, then three separate societies will exist, but we cannot look upon them as the society of humanity. Because humanity is divided into groups, one society will naturally try to thrive by exploiting the vitality of others. On observation you will notice that efforts are being made to establish so-called societies in some particular part of the world, for some particular section of the people, and based on some particular “ism” or faith. A social consciousness based on such divisions lies latent in the minds of the people, whether they are Indian, Pakistani or English, so they remain absorbed in thoughts of their smaller groups. It is actually due to some external impact that social consciousness takes the form of a really all-embracing Indian, Pakistani or English consciousness. The social consciousness of an enslaved nation is never more keenly felt than when the people are at war with the dominating colonial power. After independence that consciousness is lost. Examples of antisocial fissiparous tendencies do not stop here. Even in different regions of the same country people do not live within one social group…

To what state has society effectively been reduced? I reaffirm the fact that human beings have still not been able to form a human society, and have still not learned to move with the spirit of a pilgrim. Although many small groups (motivated by self interest) work together in particular situations, not even a small fraction of their work is done with a broader social motive. By strict definition, shall we have to declare that each small family unit is a society in itself? If going ahead in mutual adjustment only out of narrow self interest or momentary self-seeking is called society, then in such a society, no provision can be made for the disabled, the diseased or the helpless, because in most cases nobody can benefit from them in any way. Hence it will not suffice to say that all people marching ahead is only a collective form of segregated psychic phenomena; for in that case there always remains the possibility of some people getting isolated from the collective. All human beings must attach themselves to others by the common bond of love, and march forward hand in hand, then only will I proclaim it a society.” (Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, “The Spirit of Society”)

->> Second principle

->> Introduction

Second Principle of Economic Democracy

2) The second requirement for economic democracy is that increasing purchasing capacity must be guaranteed to each and every individual. In economic democracy local people will hold economic power. Consequently, local raw materials will be used to promote the economic prosperity of the local people. That is to say, the raw materials of one socio-economic unit should not be exported to another unit. Instead, industrial centres should be built up wherever raw materials are available. This will create industries based on locally available raw materials and ensure full employment for all local people.

Commentary: Understanding that the minimum requirements for life are the rights of every human being, the question is how to ensure these rights. Certainly not by a party dictatorship, as in communism. Certainly not by socialism, where bureaucrats micromanage people’s economic lives and makes plans without knowing the local area. If the state is to supply cereals, pulses, salt, gram, ghee, butter, etc. to all people then naturally the state has to institute some process of control which people may not like. The other disadvantage of guaranteeing the supply of minimum requirements is that if consumable goods are supplied to everyone, people will become lethargic and individual initiative is retarded. Economic democracy is not guaranteed by government handouts because being a beggar of one’s own government is not freedom. In countries where there used to be a good income provided as welfare payments, often people were seen to do low-level jobs for a short time and then quit and spend the money and then again work when the money ran out. This type of behaviour arises because people are not in control over their economic destiny and hence do not care about their long-term future and do not take responsibility for their region and nation.

For people to take charge of their own economic destiny requires them to have the capacity to earn their money. This is why PROUT believes in the guarantee of purchasing power of every individual and community must be incorporated into all constitutions – be they provincial, national or global. Purchasing power simply means that people earn enough income to buy the basic food, clothes, medicine, education, housing, telephone, etc that are needed in daily life. Furthermore the purchasing power should increase over time so that people are able to buy more items. This is because, as per PROUT the sign of a healthy economy is the increase in the standard of living of the common people. Per capita income is not a proper indication of the increase in the standard of living of the people because while people may have very high incomes they may not be able to purchase the necessities of life. If the per capita income is low and people have great purchasing capacity they are much better off. So, purchasing capacity and not per capita income is the true measure of economic prosperity.

The first thing that must be done to increase the purchasing capacity of the common people is to maximize the production of essential commodities, not the production of luxury goods. This will restore parity between production and consumption and ensure that the minimum requirements are supplied to all.

The problem today is that although there has been inordinately high investment, the purchasing power of labourers has not been sufficient for them to meet the minimum requirements. Hence, while on the one hand labourers received less consumable goods due to less purchasing power, on the other hand entrepreneurs have captured excessive purchasing power and consumable goods causing excessive disparities in wealth. Economic balance has been upset. So, increasing the expenses of a government department at the cost of developmental programmes amounts to committing economic suicide as the workers will have no money to buy the products they produce.

The very psychology of capitalists is to make profit from the rolling of money or global flow of currencies and commodities. When they discover that the investment of money does not bring profit up to their expectations, then they stop rolling money. This keeps money immobile or inert. As a result, consequently there is no investment, no production, and no income and hence no purchasing power.

If the percentage of the population engaged in non-agricultural industries in a country is less than twenty percent, the country is said to be industrially undeveloped. The per capita income of the people cannot be very high. The standard of living also cannot be very high because people’s purchasing capacity remains very limited. Because of the low capacity for purchasing consumer goods, the import index always remains lower than the export index, or in other words the area has to remain a satellite of a developed country. Consequently, the balance of power in the world is jeopardized and war is always possible.

The situation becomes so dangerous that there are few buyers to buy commodities – both in the exploiting nations and the exploited nations. This is the fundamental crisis in capitalism is that the maximization of profit leads to excess production and the reduction of the purchasing power of the common people. This leads eventually to an economic recession or depression. To save society from depression, the approach of PROUT is to increase purchasing power by increasing production, reduce disparities in the value of wealth, and increase the circulation of money; that is, by keeping money rolling.

In the subtle economic sense, the value of wealth is the real wealth. Wealth, if not properly defined, may mean only riches. But the value of wealth is to be measured in terms of its capacity to purchase commodities. That is, the purchasing capacity of wealth is its real value. This real value of wealth has not yet been properly understood in numerical terms by economists.

A sadvipra or spiritual revolutionary is one who liberates people from harmful physical exploitation and also psychic exploitation by fighting with them to seize control of their local economy from bureaucratic and corporate usurpers. In that case the state need not adopt control measures. When people have economic dignity and self-respect they will naturally become active and their potential talents will blossom.

It is not enough to provide the minimum necessities of life – simultaneously, the wealth of the country should also be increased. If sufficient wealth is not generated to meet the growing demands of the people, seeds of discontent will settle in their minds. So the increase in population should also be accompanied by an increase in the generation of national wealth. This increase in national wealth is not achieved by economic centralization which creates poor, marginalized regions and rich regions for this regional economic exploitation leads to eventual breakdown of the national economy.

The central government should not control large-scale industries because this may hamper the interests of local people. Where there is a federal system of government, these industries should be controlled by the immediate government, and where there is unitary government, they should be managed by local bodies.

Industrial decentralization is only possible in a collective economic structure. No profit motive will remain in such a structure. Capitalists start industries only where the following factors are available: (1) capital; (2) labour; (3) favourable [economic] climate; and (4) a ready market for sales. They always try to decrease the cost of production and therefore hence they will never support the principle of decentralization. In the collective economic structure the profit motive has no place – here industry is for consumption. In the collective economic structure, self-supporting economic units are to be strengthened.

Capitalism was based on the exploitation at the county level, then at the regional level and then at the national level. What PROUT advocates is the reversal of this trend or economic decentralization. This mandates the creation of a grassroots economic revival based on the local talent and local people charting their own economic destiny in consultation with ecologists, economists and other experts. What this means practically is that local resources will not be stolen by other regions or nations. The local resources will be used to create local industries. This will stop the brain drain as well as urban flight which not only destroys agricultural production but also results in moral and cultural debasement. This will also foster the development of local, regional and global civilization. Moral values, folk culture and spiritual or mysticism thrive in a decentralized society where they emerge naturally out of the process of ecological, economic, psychological harmony with the local environment and with the inner realm of spiritual bliss. Furthermore indigenous peoples (adivasis) who are what is called the Fourth World in a decentralized economy will be able to attain economic and cultural freedom from exploitation by the majority ethnic population. In reality indigenous peoples used to know countless rare plants that have thus far not been used as crops because of the monoculture of capitalist agriculture.

It is not enough to simply create a few industries. Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar called for an industrial revolution based on local resources including rare, lesser known ones such as for example types of bamboo which are as hard as steel. The goal of this industrial revolution is to create economic independence as far as possible at the block (district subdivision) level, at the district level and then at the regional (samaja) level. The aim behind this industrial revolution is to create regional cultural and economic freedom and sovereignty (svaraja). For this industrial revolution we must not depend upon raw materials from foreign countries. Remember that no country should depend on imported raw materials for development. Indigenous raw materials, that is, materials available within the country itself, must be used for this purpose. Those who love society – those who love the people of their country and are keen to bring about their socio-economic elevation – must think in terms of an industrial revolution based on the raw materials available in their own socio-economic unit.

The economy of the area and the social life of the people should be balanced. The development of big industries alone should be avoided, because in such industries the local people have no place.

Maximum industries should be developed in the local area according to the availability of raw materials or local consumption. This principle will develop the economic potential of a socioeconomic unit by placing economic power into the hands of the local people and divesting outsiders of their control over the economy. In an economy most industries will be run as agricultural, producer or consumer cooperatives creating a new kind of cooperative spirit or cooperative dynamo. Such an approach will place economic power into the hands of those who work physically or intellectually for proper production, stripping capitalists of their exploitative economic power. Thus maximum industrial development will be assured.

Several corollaries arise from this principle. First, industries should utilize locally available local raw materials and should not import raw materials from outside the socioeconomic unit. Raw materials are the basic ingredients or resources necessary to make finished products. The tyre industry, for example, requires rubber plantations as rubber sap is the basic raw material for this industry. If the topography of the local area favours the ample growth of rubber trees, then industries may be created around this raw material. Or, if alternative synthetic materials are available, a synthetic tyre industry may be developed.

There are several reasons why industries should utilize locally available raw materials. First, not all areas have the same socio-economic potential. Different areas will naturally be conducive to producing different kinds of raw materials, as in the case of plant-based raw materials. Industries based on locally available raw materials can produce commodities cheaply, be located near ready supplies of raw materials, and ensure their self-reliance. These advantages are not apparent where there is a dependence on outside raw materials.

Secondly, raw material producers, especially producer cooperatives, will prosper as there will be ready markets for their products.

Thirdly, industries will feel secure when they know that sufficient raw materials are available to supply their needs, and they will be able to plan their future production efficiently.

Fourthly, many large capitalists deliberately influence the economic and political policies of a local area by preventing the growth of local industries based on the local raw materials. They further exploit the local people by selling manufactured goods in the local markets which are made from locally produced raw materials. Australia, for example, imports many manufactured goods from Japan which are produced from Australian raw materials. Encouraging the growth of local industries based on local raw materials will terminate the dominance individual and collective capitalists exercise over the local markets, ending the drainage of capital vital for the local area’s economic growth.

Another corollary is that local raw materials should not be exported – only manufactured goods should be exported. Local raw material prices in the export market are subject to manipulation and erratic fluctuations as they are currently traded through speculative commodity markets which are controlled by vested interests. To root out dishonesty from the field of trade, free trade should be established throughout the world as far as possible.

Manufactured goods, on the other hand, are generally subject to less price manipulation and command better prices than raw materials. By manufacturing locally finished products, a socioeconomic unit can conserve its reserve bullion and improve the purchasing capacity of the local people.

A third corollary is that if no potential exists to produce the manufactured goods required by industry in the local area, only then should the importation of such goods be allowed. Importation of manufactured goods means that local capital is being transferred to another socio-economic unit which has produced the product. The drainage of capital is always detrimental to the economic growth of a socio-economic unit; therefore unnecessary importation should always be discouraged. Barter agreements should be arranged between trading units so that no net loss occurs to either of the trading partners. Barter agreements in foreign trade are especially beneficial for those socio-economic units which have very few commodities to sell but a large number of commodities to buy, and their saleable commodities, though few in number, are large in quantity.

Thus, where there is a plentiful supply of local raw materials, industries can be developed for local demand according to local consumption, and if applicable the surplus may be exported. The availability of raw materials will ensure the long term viability of local industries.

->> Third principle

->> Introduction

Third principle of Economic Democracy

3) The third requirement for economic democracy is that all the resources in a socio-economic unit should be controlled by the local people. In particular, the resources which are required to produce the minimum requirements must be in local hands, and all the industries based on these resources will have to be controlled entirely by the local people. Local raw materials must be fully utilized to produce all kinds of commodities necessary for the economic development of a socio-economic unit.

Economic liberation is the birthright of every individual. To achieve it, economic power must be vested in the local people. In economic democracy the local people will have the power to make all economic decisions, to produce commodities on the basis of collective necessity, and to distribute all agricultural and industrial commodities.

Local people are those who have merged their individual socio-economic interests with the socio-economic interests of the socio-economic unit they live in. Clearly, this concept of local people has nothing to do with physical complexion, race, caste, creed, language or birth place. The fundamental issue is whether or not each person or family has identified their individual socio-economic interests with the collective interests of the concerned socio-economic unit. Those who have not done so should be branded as outsiders.

No outsider should be allowed to interfere in local economic affairs or in the system of production and distribution; otherwise a floating population will develop, causing the outflow of economic wealth from the local area. If this occurs the area will become vulnerable to outside economic exploitation and decentralized economy will be undermined.

The surplus wealth, after meeting the minimum requirements of the people in the local area, should be distributed among the meritorious people according to the degree of their merit. For example, doctors, engineers, scientists and other capable people engaged in various activities require extra amenities so that they can perform greater service to society. While a common person may require a bicycle, a doctor may require a car. But there must also be provision in the economy for reducing the gap between the minimum requirements of all and the amenities of meritorious people. To increase the standard of living of common people, they may be provided with scooters instead of bicycles. Although there is some difference between a scooter and a car, the gap that existed between a car and a bicycle has been partially reduced. The economic gap between common people and meritorious people should be reduced as much as possible and ceaseless efforts must be made in this regard, but this gap will never vanish altogether. If the gap increases, the common people will be deprived and exploitation will re-emerge in society in the guise of amenities. Decentralized economy leaves no such loophole because on the one hand the standard of the minimum requirements must be increased, and on the other hand the provision of amenities will be assessed from the viewpoint of the collective welfare.

 Commentary: We have seen that the minimum necessities of life must be given to the people and this requires a new vision of what an economy and what a society should be like. We have further seen that this should be done by increasing the purchasing power of the people through proper employment and that this necessitates the creation of a local economy based on the industrialization of local resources. This brings to the key issue that is explored in this principle and that is the control over the economy in any community must be in the hands of the local people alone.

Why is this so important? It is crucial because only then will the local resources be used for the consumption and development of the local area. And it is this alone that will bring economic liberty, equality and fraternity into people’s lives. The rich know the joy of economic freedom but their joy is poisoned because their freedom is based on the economic slavery of the fellow citizens of their community. When people do not have to worry about their basic needs and more importantly when they are not getting handouts but are involved and collectively in control over their own economy, then their lives have meaning and purpose beyond earning enough to survive or earning to pay for the schooling of the children and meet their needs after retirement. In the present Depression even those who are able to get jobs get such low paying jobs that they have to work two jobs. Begging all day long is the lot of those who cannot get employment. This is not natural. In the past people thought it was natural that they should be slaves and that dukes, knights and zamindars (feudal landlords) should control what they say and what they do. Now people realize that political slavery is unnatural. Through this Global Economic Depression the same realization is being forced upon countless people all over the world. But ending economic slavery is not the core issue. The core issue is svaraja or the dominion of the local people over their local economy. People must learn to fight for economic freedom just like they fought for the political freedom of their community. This is the second freedom struggle that will create a holistic democracy based on morality and Neohumanistic (socio-spiritual brotherly and sisterly) love.

And while we are talking about this kind of love, we must be clear that we are not supporting narrow xenophobia or hatred of outsiders. Those who have merged their lives in the local community are genuine local citizens. Someone may be born in a community but he may be spending his money outside the community. Hence he is involved in the debasement of the local economy and is an outsider or someone inimical to the local community. On the other hand an immigrant born elsewhere who has learned the local language and culture and added the noble aspects of his/her own culture (while preserving the birth language and culture in their family life) is to be considered as a local person if they invest all their money and labour in the local community. Someone who demonstrates love for the local region (by learning and developing the local culture and devoting one’s labour and wealth to the local economy) is the criteria of a local person.

In the area of trade, state (bioregional or samaja) governments must have the right to take action against those involved in black marketeering, speculation, adulteration, illegal misappropriation and the creation of artificial scarcity, but broad-based autonomous bodies (such as district boards or municipal corporations) should also have sufficient power to act. This is because if ordinary people want to take action against a local offender they may have to register their complaint with an individual police officer, then with the police station, then with the sub-divisional administration and finally with the district administration, the entire process taking about six or nine months, and when they reach the state capital, they learn that such matters come under the jurisdiction of the central government and not the state government. This type of situation is certainly not desirable. The state government must have the right to pass and enforce anti-corruption laws.

In the area of trade, state (bioregional or samaja) governments must have the right to take action against those involved in black marketeering, speculation, adulteration, illegal misappropriation and the creation of artificial scarcity, but broad-based autonomous bodies (such as district boards or municipal corporations) should also have sufficient power to act. This is because if ordinary people want to take action against a local offender they may have to register their complaint with an individual police officer, then with the police station, then with the sub-divisional administration and finally with the district administration, the entire process taking about six or nine months, and when they reach the state capital, they learn that such matters come under the jurisdiction of the central government and not the state government. This type of situation is certainly not desirable. The state government must have the right to pass and enforce anti-corruption laws.

Now we have to face the idea of the outsiders. One basic principle of political democracy is that foreign dukes, royalty, or other powerful people have no right to interfere in the politics one’s homeland. This is the foundation of political patriotism. Similarly the foundation of economic patriotism lies in the determination that no outsider capitalist, corporation or capitalist empire has the right to economically interfere, control and enslave the people and the communities of one’s homeland. Those who refuse to accept this principle are traitors, no matter how much they wrap themselves up in the flag. The real patriots are those who fight to protect the government and the economy of their homeland from outside control. And while we are talking about homeland we should make absolutely clear that the foremost loyalty lies at the local level. No district should exploit another district; neither should one block (sub-district) exploit another block. And at the bioregional level, that is called samaja in PROUT, there should be complete socio-economic, cultural and ecological independence and self-reliance. We also have to clearly state that even those who were born and live in a locality but who are hoarding property and wealth are in fact “outside exploiters”. This is because they are a threat to the economic freedom and prosperity of the local community. As per PROUT all property is the common inheritance of all people and no one has any right but to temporarily use their fair share of it. This is why an aphorism of PROUT clearly states,

“Samájádeshena viná dhanasaiṋcayah akartavyah.
[No individual should be allowed to accumulate any physical wealth without the clear permission or approval of the collective body.]
Purport: The universe is the collective property of all. All people have usufructuary rights but no one has the right to misuse this collective property. If a person acquires and accumulates excessive wealth, he or she directly curtails the happiness and convenience of others in society. Such behaviour is flagrantly antisocial. Therefore, no one should be allowed to accumulate wealth without the permission of society.”

And it will not be enough to simply enough to protect one’s homeland from external and internal exploiters, the very culture and sentiment underlying this type of exploitation must be fought. Of all the factors that cause this imbalance in the external world, the primary one is geo-sentiment, which concerns itself with the interests of one’s own locality at the expense of other localities. People will have to fight against geo-sentiment in their individual lives in order to direct their inner beings towards perfection, to develop their latent humanity along the proper channels, and to elevate the demi-humans, or half-humans, and the quarter-humans to the level of fully-developed human beings.

Other associated sentiments – geo-patriotism (fascism), geo-religion (dogmas based on holy lands for chosen people), geo-economics (nations crating mafias of empires) and many more – are based on this geo-sentiment; and in the future clever people may create still more sentiments based on it. All these sentiments certainly hinder the inner growth of human beings. So people must remain vigilant, lest this precious treasure, their inner asset, be destroyed. This sentiment for a particular land is the most baneful sentiment that poisons not just material life but especially spiritual life. Nationalism, provincialism based on the principle of selfish personal enjoyment is the greatest threat to morality and spirituality in any country. This sentiment must be fought first in one’s own homeland by extensive study. One has to study practically the history of exploitation and the different varieties of exploitation of different nations and provinces. This study has to become a collective mission in the society. This is how one has to awaken the conscience of one’s homeland. Once the collective conscience is awakened, the collective rationality and the pursuit of rational reflection must become part of social life. This is essential, not just to protect one’s homeland from the external exploiters but to protect one’s homeland (samaja) from the greatest enemy – the internal urge to exploit arising from narrow selfish emotions of a crude state of consciousness.

For it is not enough that the local people be given control over their own local economy. The people themselves must be liberated from all kinds of vices arising from selfishness. This requires a moral and spiritual renaissance in the society. Geo-religion (religious nationalism or provincialism) is the primary enemy of any bioregion or samaja. Although a few people thought to establish a strong and healthy society, they adopted argument and debate instead of deliberation and reason to convince the people of the need for such a society, and ultimately ended up projecting themselves instead of the ideology. Thus, the ideology became secondary and was ultimately swept away because people started worshipping them as Mahatmas, prophets and avatars. This was why, in the absence of an ideology, a strong society has not been established, and many defects have crept into individual and collective life.

In the present era one has to liberate the minds of one’s community because economic exploitation today has become more and more psychological in its quest for control over the mind of a community. Psycho-economic exploitation is the latest form of dangerous and all-devouring capitalist exploitation. It is a special type of exploitation which first weakens and paralyses people psychologically in various ways, and then exploits them economically. Some of the methods of psycho-economic exploitation include, first, the suppression of the indigenous language and culture of local people; secondly, the extensive propagation of pseudo-culture, exemplified by pornographic literature which debases people’s mind and particularly undermines the vitality of the youth; thirdly, the imposition of numerous restrictions on women, forcing them to be economically dependent on men; fourthly, an unpsychological education system with frequent political interference by vested interests (religious, racial, ethnic and corporate); fifthly, the negation of Dharma (sublime righteousness) in the name of secularism (materialism); sixthly, the balkanization of society into numerous castes and groups; seventhly, the damaging of society by the use of unnatural and harmful methods of birth control; and eighthly, placing the control of different mass media, such as newspapers, radio and television, in the hands of capitalists. Both intellectual exploitation and psycho-economic exploitation are great dangers to the human race today.

With this liberation of intellect it alone become possible to create economic democracy at the ground level because then people will no longer be shackled by their selfish sentiments and will have the urge to care for and serve the human, animals, plants, rivers and hills of their homeland. This brings us to the other basic fact that must be accepted. We have accepted that the minimum requirements have to be provided to everyone and we have accepted that everyone should have increasing purchasing power. However, it is also a fact that those who are talented and those who are hard-working must be rewarded. Left wingers want to neglect this fact and right wingers want to neglect their duty to provide the minimum requirements to life to every human being. In the Soviet Union talented people shirked work and stagnated because their talents were neither respected nor rewarded. Both right and left mentalities are expressions of a two dimensional consciousness. An economy is not just about ending people’s suffering. It is about the thriving of every single one of their dormant potentialities and talents. So the talents of people must be cherished by the society. So the second main mission of the local economy controlled by the local people is to nurture and blossom all the talent in the community.

This is achieved by providing greater and higher quality of material goods to reward the talented and the hard-working. So the PROUT economy is driven by 2 dynamic processes. First there is the endeavour to provide the minimum necessities to everyone and to increase their wealth by increasing their purchasing power. Second there is the endeavour to nurture the physical, psychic (cultural, intellectual, care-giving) and spiritual talents of the exceptional people in the society. After meeting the minimum requirements of all in any age, the surplus wealth will have to be distributed among meritorious people according to the degree of their merit. In an age when a bicycle is the minimum requirement for common people, a motor vehicle is necessary for a physician. In recognition of people’s merit, and to provide the meritorious with greater opportunities to serve the society, they have to be provided with motor vehicles.

This is not achieved at the expense of the common people such as found in aristocracies or meritocracies. Rather the primary demand of PROUT’s economic democracy is the imposition of a MAXIMUM WAGE or LUXURY LIMIT (Amiiri Rekha). Unless this is wholehearted accepted by the people of a community who have learned to control and sublimate their selfishness, an economic democracy is impossible in the real world.

There are some activists against the ecological destruction of capitalism who advocate going back to a subsistence economy and ending economic growth as much as possible. While the moral principle of taking the minimum of what needs to survive (aparigraha) is the foundation of PROUT. This cannot be enforced on people such as was attempted with disastrous consequences in communist societies. Repression of any desire leads to more perverse and violent expression of that desire. The solution in PROUT is to allow people to increase their material wealth while at the same time preventing exploitation and encouraging people towards more sublime values and states of Consciousness. This is why one of PROUT’s aphorisms (sutras) states,

Sarvanimnamánavardhanaḿ samájajiivalakśańam.

[Increasing the minimum standard of living of the people is the indication of the vitality of society.]

So, besides increasing the maximum amenities of meritorious people, we also have to increase the maximum amenities available to common people. Meritorious people will earn more than common people, and this earning will include their maximum amenities. But the common people should not be deprived of maximum amenities, so there should be efforts to give them as much of the maximum amenities as possible. There will still be a gap between the maximum amenities of the common people and the maximum amenities of the meritorious, but there should be constant efforts to reduce this gap. Thus, the common people should also receive more and more amenities. If maximum amenities are not provided to common people, no doubt there will be progress in society, but there will always remain the scope for imperfection in future. What constitutes both the minimum requirements and the maximum amenities should be ever increasing.

In the bonus system the calculation of the bonus will be on the basis of the time saved, and the money value of this calculation will be given to the worker. This will be the incentive in the bonus system.

In the piece-work system, the incentive is calculated in a different way. Suppose we are manufacturing machines. The labour, etc. involved in the cost of production is set, so the market price will be the cost of production plus a rational profit. P = C + Y. A rational profit is about 15%. This amount or part of it will be distributed amongst those who manufactured the machines. This will be their incentive. As they get more incentive, workers will try to manufacture more machines. This is not the case in state capitalism because workers get fixed incentives which become part of the salary. Incentives should encourage greater work and better quality work, so they should be directly linked to production. When this system is adopted the per capita income and the standard of living of the workers will automatically increase. This is how incentives should work in the piece work system.

One age will go and another will come, and human longings will also change. In one age a particular type of breakfast is accepted as the standard, and in the next age it will be considered substandard. Today people eat bread and butter, but according to the standard of the next age people may eat fried rice or sweet rice. Thus, the maximum amenities of life should be guaranteed to each and every individual, and their standard should be continuously elevated. Most importantly everyone in a community must fight to make sure that the gap between the minimum wage and the maximum wage does not increase causing inequality. Ideally the gap between the two should be 5% and not more than 10%. However the wage – be it maximum or minimum – must provide more and more capacity to purchase more and more goods

The jurisdiction of maximum amenities will go on expanding with the progress of human beings. Human beings are marching ahead, and their longing for different psycho-physical pabula is also increasing. The minimum requirements of the age must be guaranteed, and the maximum amenities must also be guaranteed. Maximum amenities must be provided in the existing environment.

Can human thirst be fully quenched? Can human hunger be fully satisfied? Why is it, that human thirst knows no limitations? From PROUT we are moving to psycho-philosophy or Neohumanism – the cult of love for all created beings as manifestations of Supreme Consciousness. Neohumanism will bring equality in the social sphere and remove all sorts of disparities; therefore human progress will be greatly accelerated. In the relative world human thirst cannot be satisfied. Human beings are the progeny of the Supreme Progenitor, therefore human thirst is unlimited. All the properties of the Supreme are ensconced in human existence, and not only in human existence, but in each and every entity of the expressed universe. Can physical thirst, psychic thirst and spiritual thirst be quenched? Only spiritual thirst can be quenched. Unification of the unit with the Cosmic can quench the spiritual thirst. And it is when this thirst becomes powerful in the collective mind, then will the people never tolerate any increase in inequality between the maximum and minimum wages, nor will they utilize their talents and wealth selfishly but will find their joys in giving and serving others.

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