Ac. Krtashivananda Avt.
For the first time in history through the influence of science and technology, our planet and its inhabitants have become parts of one whole, affected by each other. Economic and political phenomena are compelling us to treat the world as one unit. Yet the sense that they human race must become one community is a causal whim, a vague aspiration, and not generally accepted as a conscious ideal. Attempts to bring human unity by creating political systems through force have proven abortive.
Even today we find that in the people’s souls there are clashing tides of color, race, nation, religion and gender that continue to create mutual antagonisms, myths and dreams that divide human society into hostile camps, and unfortunately, there is no world body with a firm resolve to neutralize those hostilities.
The tyrannization and oppression of the Tibetan people, the massacres on the Balkans, tribal conflicts in Africa, religious persecution in the Middle East and the persecution of minorities in Bangla Desh and elsewhere demonstrate clearly the impotence of the United Nations. The Khalenj Times of the United Arab Emirates wrote: “Blunt military action in Somalia to avenge armed offences against U.N. personnel contrasts starkly with inaction … in the face of persistent Nazi-like atrocities against Bosnian Muslims.” Il Messagero of Italy wrote: “It was hoped that the U.N. could finally carry out its duties in a world government framework, [but] it does not yet have the authority, the strength, or the necessary political design to accomplish its tasks.”
The powerlessness of the world body lies in the fact that any one of the Big Five (the permanent members of the Security Council) can veto any crucial decision of the collective body. Another vital problem is the contradiction in the U.N. Charter between its first purpose – to maintain international peace – and the first principle of “the sovereign equality of all its members.” That means the U.N. has no real authority to interfere in the internal affairs on any nation even if the ruling class victimizes its minorities. As an inevitable consequence the suppression of minorities and the exodus of refugees are increasing, with utter disregard for justice and human values.
One of the principal tasks of the U.N., as set forth in Article 55 of the Charter, is to promote “Universal respect for, and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language and religion.” In conformity with this provision of the Charter, the Human Rights Commission was set up by the Economic and Social Council of the U.N. The Commission drew up the famous Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the U.N. in December 1948. This declaration is regarded as an international Magna Carta for all of humanity.
The Declaration consists of a Preamble and 30 articles. Closely following the American Bill of Rights and declarations of people’s rights in other countries, the first part of the Declaration reaffirms political and civil rights and various freedoms, such as freedom of speech and worship, personal security, equality before the law, a right to own property, etc. The second part deals with more recently recognized human rights, generally called economic, social and cultural rights.
But a mere declaration of rights above cannot ensure the enjoyment of these rights unless they are recognized and enforced by their governments. In the absence of any constitutional obligation.
And any agency to enforce these rights, the Declaration has so far remained a pious wish. It is essential today to ensure some form of legal sanction so that rights can be enforced. For this to happen, the world body must have constitutional sovereignty over national sovereignty.
To neutralize the antagonisms between ethnic, racial, religious and tribal groups, the spirit of neo-humanism should be given prime importance. In the opinion of of M.N. Roy: “Humanism is cosmopolitan. It does not run after utopian internationalism, which presupposes the existence of autonomous national states. A cosmopolitan commonwealth of free men and women is a possibility. It will be a spiritual community, not limited by the boundaries of national states – capitalist, fascist, communist or any other ism, which will gradually disappear under the impact of cosmopolitan humanism.”
P.R. Sarkar proposes that, “The universe is just like a joint family. Peace and tranquility depend on a well-knit socio-economic structure. The moulding of the socio-economic structure depends on the ideological outlook. First we should have a constructive ideal. The ideal should not only be a culminating point but it should be a starting point also.” He further proposes. “Universalism does not depend upon any relative factor. Hence it is free from the vices of ‘isms’. ‘Isms’ are a major contributor to war. Those who are eager to establish peace should shake off nationalism and other allied ‘isms’. If we are to shake off these ‘isms’ we have to organize a universal body and go on strengthening its power. It will be the first phase in establishing the World Government. In the initial stage it will be a law framing body. The first beneficial effect of such a body will be that no country will be allowed to frame laws detrimental to the interest of its minorities. The right of executing those laws will be vested with the local government and not with the World Government. That World Government will decide the principles to enforce law in a particular country.”
With the centralization of political power, economic power should be decentralized. Self-reliant socio-economic zones should be based on the sentimental legacy and economic potentiality of each zone. This will be the lowest political unit of the world confederation.
Factors essential for a world government
Discarding all forms of nationalism or internationalism in the form of fascism, communism, capitalism, etc., universalism must find its way towards the establishment of a world government. The following factors are essential for this purpose:
- Common philosophy of life
- Universality of constitutional structure
- A common penal code
- Availability of the minimum requirements of life
- A common philosophy of life
The destiny of the human race, as of the individual, depends on the direction of its life forces, the lights that guide it, and the values that mould it. At this juncture of human history it is essential to discard the narrow geo-sentiments, socio-sentiments and other group sentiments in the form of nationalism, racism, religious groupism and tribalism.
That there is a spiritual unity of all living beings within an apparent diversity of expression is the essence of neohumanism. The real essence of progressive movement is from imperfection to perfection, from bondage to liberation. In the collective effort to realize the unity of soul lays the genesis of social progress.
Universality of constitutional structure
Throughout history, dominating classes have framed laws according to their interests rather than higher values. Under a world government however, the differences among cardinal values, morality and law should be minimized. The difference between cardinal law, moral law and human law should be minimized. Discarding narrow considerations of religion and class domination, there should be one universally accepted set of laws.
The world constitution should be based on the following principles:
a) A guarantee of complete security to all plants and animals
b) A guarantee of purchasing power adequate to secure the minimum requirements of life to all citizens of every country. These requirements include food, clothing, housing, medical and education.
c) The recognition of four fundamental rights:
i) spiritual practice
ii) cultural legacy
iv) indigenous linguistic expression
If the practice of any of these rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be curtailed immediately; cardinal human values should take precedence over all rights.
A common penal code
The penal code should also be prepared on the basis of the constitutional structure. This requires that the entire conception of vice and virtue be changed.
Guarantee of the minimum necessities of life
This is the fundamental aspect of the economic structure of Sarkar’s PROUT. Special amenities may be given to the people according to their output, but only after guaranteeing the minimum requirements to all. For this purpose, economic balance for the world must be restored.
From World Government, a reality of the 21st century, Ac. Krtashivananda, PROUT Research Institute, Copenhagen 1995
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