The following contains two chapters of Shrii Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar’s Ráŕh: The Cradle of Civilization (Kolkata 1981), along with maps of Rarh and Western Rarh.

The Primeval Land of Ráŕh

There was a great ocean, its surface agitated by rows of towering waves, an ocean which had neither name nor gotra [clan]. Who was there to name it, who was there to tell others about it? No one, because human beings had not yet come on earth. This was about 300 million years ago.1 There was no name yet on earth for that arid, mountainous terrain, nor even yet a single grove of trees to which a name could be given.2

After a long time this very terrain, this nameless mountainous terrain, was given the name Ráŕh. The word ráŕh originated in the ancient Austric language and means a land of red (laterite) soil. In the world of those days there was no Áryyávartta;3 there were none of the plain lands of Bengal and the Deccan, nor were there the deserts of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The northern part of the Arabian Sea did not exist either; what existed was its southern part, which linked the Deccan peninsula with Africa, the Andamans, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia. They were linked by [land] that lay sometimes a little above the water level, sometimes a little below.4 In that world uninhabited by human beings, the Ráŕh of those days was older than any other land. The snow-covered mountains of Ráŕh gave birth to numerous rivers. These rivers, fed by melting snow, flowed some to the east and some to the southeast, towards the ocean.

Days passed, time passed, from beginninglessness to endlessness. Rainstorms and thunderbolts struck the mountains, and gradually the mountains diminished. Their snowy crowns fell off their heads, their height decreased. As the mountains became smaller and smaller through erosion, each river basin that lay between two mountains became higher. The undulating red soil that we see today in the west of Ráŕh, the undulation that advances ahead of us till it mingles in the remote blue, the undulation that hints at some lost address as it recedes behind us – that undulating land is our Ráŕh.

Miśt́i Ráŕher mát́i –
Sońár Lauṋká, sońár svarga ceyeo jáni kháṋt́i.

[Sweet is the soil of Ráŕh
Purer, I know, than golden Lanka5 or golden heaven.]

The mountains were gradually eroding and were being transformed into sand and silt. This sand and silt, carried by the rivers of Ráŕh, formed eastern Ráŕh. This was lakhs and crores6 of years ago.

The Himalayas were born many crores of years after the birth of Ráŕh.7 From the Himalayas issued a daughter, the River Gauṋgá [Ganges], and a son, the River Brahamaputra.8 The sand and silt their waters bore formed new soil; northern India and Báḿlá [Bengal] were formed. The bed of the sea that was to the east of Ráŕh rose higher and higher thanks to that sand and silt, and – after the formation of eastern Ráŕh – long after – many lakhs of years after – formed a vast plain (samatal). That plain [to the east of eastern Ráŕh] is known as Samatata in the Sanskrit language and Bágŕi in the Bengali language. Farther to the east, the sand and silt borne by the rivers of Ráŕh mingled with the sand and silt of the Brahmaputra and formed Vauṋga,9 or D́abák. The people of western Ráŕh migrated to eastern Ráŕh and set up habitation. This happened some lakhs of years ago. If human beings appeared a million years ago, then those inhabitants of the western Ráŕh of a million years ago found eastern Ráŕh to have been in a ready condition for them even before their birth. Even a portion of northern India arose before the origin of human beings. Samatat and D́abák, however, originated a little after the appearance on earth of humans. The people of western and eastern Ráŕh removed the forest cover and dwelt in Samatat-Vauṋga-D́abák.

This is a description of the genesis of Ráŕh and Báḿlá. What we consider, roughly, to be Samatat is 1) eastern Murshidabad, 2) Nadia, 3) 24 Parganas, 4) Kusthia, 5) Jessore, 6) Khulna, 7) western Faridpur and 8) western Bakhargunj.10

We consider eastern Ráŕh to be, roughly, 1) western Murshidabad, 2) the northern part of Birbhum, 3) eastern Burdwan, 4) the whole of Hooghly, 5) the whole of Howrah, 6) eastern Midnapore and 7) the Indas Police Station11 of Bankura District.

We consider western Ráŕh to be 1) Santhal Pargana,12 2) most parts of Birbhum, 3) western Burdwan, 4) Bankura District except for the Indas Police Station, 5) Purulia District, 6) Dhanbad District, 7) Kasmar, Peterwad, Gola, Jeredi, Ramgarh, etc., of Hazaribag (now Giridih) District, 8) Silli, Sonahatu, Bundu and the Tamar Police Station of Ranchi District, 9) Singhbhum District [present East Singbhum, West Singhbum, and Saraikela-Kharsawan Districts] and 10) the Jhargram Subdivision and Sadar North and Sadar South Subdivisions of Midnapore District.

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Human beings originated at a few particular points on this planet. Without getting into a detailed discussion as to which humans appeared first and which appeared later, I can say that the origin of humankind in Ráŕh is very ancient. No trace can be found of any more ancient human habitation.13 When forests appeared on earth, dense forests spread over the hard [e.g., granitic] rock, the metamorphic rock, the igneous rock and the sedimentary rock of Ráŕh. This very forest of that time provided vital nectar to Ráŕh as a human habitation. This very forest reined in the rivers of Ráŕh. Again, it was this forest, after the erosion of the snow-covered mountains, that invited rain clouds to Ráŕh. And the rain-god conferred his abundant and inexhaustible blessings on Ráŕh. This is our land of Ráŕh – a living onlooker to many a cycle of creation, preservation and destruction, a mute witness to a host of changes.

Countless were the wild creatures in the forests of Ráŕh. Human beings appeared on the soil of Ráŕh after the ice age had retreated from its heart. The enormous animals were gradually becoming smaller. The mammoths (aerávatas in Sanskrit) had been frozen in ice and fossilized, leaving behind elephants as their descendants. The age of gigantic dinosaurs, guntosaurs and the coctatius14 was over, and other kinds of large animals took their place. The forest-dwellers of Ráŕh, clad in leaves, bark and animal skins, lived by hunting. The human beings of today may disregard them, but those people were the epitome of simplicity, they were the representatives of the undulating soil and the thunderous reverberation of Ráŕh, the underdeveloped humans of that time who were the revered ancestors of the people of today, and the dust of whose feet we touch to our heads as we march ahead.

Afterwards, those people learned how to tend animals, and slowly learned a little agriculture. The flaming colours of the palásh [Butea monosperma] forests in the month of Phálgun [mid-February to mid-March, when the palásh tree blooms], [[also]] set their minds into a colourful dance. A fire for self-expression stirred their hearts as well. This was many thousands of years ago. Surely, they did practise tapasyá [suffering or austerity for the attainment of a certain goal]. But what was it for? How did they do it? Who taught them? No one but the Lord of their inner world, the Supreme Master of their life, taught them – “Search, search, someone is there – someone is coming – someone will give you what you need to journey forward, and help you properly direct your efforts to reach the goal.” This was their nameless, silent tapasyá. When the Aryans started coming into India, at a time when some had already come, and some were about to start from the barren, arid lands of central Asia – Lord Sadáshiva, that great personality, the life and soul of everyone, was born. The people of Ráŕh came in touch with His eternal gospel and infallible guidance and received the much-desired touch of the enlivening wand of their Abhiiśt́a.15 Thus Ráŕh became the cradle of civilization.16

Ráŕh was not only the starting-point of civilization, Ráŕh represented the first-ever steps towards cultural progress. The intermingling of the basins of small and big rivers, and the exchange of activities and ideas, laid the foundation for the civilization and the culture of Ráŕh, whose splendour in turn ushered in a golden dawn not only in Ráŕh, but also in the life of all of the underdeveloped humanity of that dark age. People of many lands started converging on Ráŕh to hear the páiṋcajanya, the clarion call, of humanity, and to join in singing the paean of humanity. China called Ráŕh by the name of “Láti”, Greece called it “Gauṋgá Rid́i” and the Aryans called it “Rát́t́ha”. The civilization and culture of Ráŕh were not confined to Ráŕh alone – they could not be confined, and it would have been wrong to confine them. They sailed by sea from its port of Tamralipta [modern Tamluk], responding to the call of its far-off nameless and unknown friends.

Ráŕhʼs contribution to the building of a social structure was also extraordinary. There was no stratum of life, no vein in the tender leaf of life that did not throb to Ráŕhʼs touch. The ancestral land of the majority of the Brahmins of modern Báḿlá was Ráŕh. Hence they call themselves Ráŕhii Brahmins even today. Wherever they are now, the Bandopadhyays (of Bandyaghati village of Birbhum), the Mukhopadhyays (of Mukhoti village of Bankura in western Ráŕh), the Chattopadhyays (of Chatuli village of Burdwan in Ráŕh), the Gangopadhyays (of Gangoli village of Burdwan) and the Ghosals17 (of Ghosali village of Manbhum) had their roots in Ráŕh and subsequently set off for other parts of the world.

Though intellect is what makes a human being most venerable, oneʼs kśátra shakti [soldierly strength] and kśátra shaoryya [soldierly valour] can in no way be ignored. Vijaysingha, the son of Singhabahu the king of Singhapur19 of southern Ráŕh, conquered Lanka [now Sri Lanka], and as a mark of his victory gave it the name Singhal. Pandu Basudev, the nephew of the sonless Vijaysingha, ascended the throne of Singhal in c. 534 BCE and conquered the south-western coast of India. The transplanted people of Bengal laid the foundation of the Nair society of Kerala. The Ráŕhii Brahmins of Bengal set sail for the coast of Konkan where they set up the Gaoŕiiya Sárasvata Brahmin society. Sahasrabáhu, another prince of Singhapur, founded the Thailand dynasty and named the country Shyámdesh. None of the above went as a conqueror; wherever they went they became sons of the soil and merged with the local inhabitants. This is a matter of great joy. The superiority of Ráŕh did not lie, as a hidden agenda, in the conquest of those lands; it lay in devoting themselves to the service of those new places. This was Ráŕh – Ráŕh the starting-point of civilization.


[1] The Carboniferous Period of the Palaeozoic Era was 270-350 million years ago. –Trans.

[2] Seed plants first emerged during the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, 210-250 million years ago. –Trans.

[3] Lit., “land of the Aryans”; northern India, which the Aryans at one point occupied. –Trans.

[4] The name used for this ancient land mass is Gondwanaland. Where Áryyávartta was to arise there was still sea; the plain lands of Bengal and the Deccan were still sea and had not yet been built up from alluvial deposits; where Rajasthan and Gujarat were to arise there was still sea; the northern part of the Arabian Sea was a land link between the mass that was to become India and the mass that was to become Africa. –Trans.

[5] Sri Lanka. –Trans.

[6] One lakh = one hundred thousand. One crore = ten million. –Trans.

[7] As with northern India, where the Himalayas were to arise there was still sea. –Trans.

[8] The words “Gauṋgá” and “Brahamaputra” are feminine and masculine, respectively. –Trans.

[9] The term “Vauṋga” is sometimes used as a synonym for “Báḿlá”, “Bengal”; but at other times, as in this book, “Vauṋga” refers only to the easternmost part of Bengal – i.e., what is now basically eastern Bangladesh. –Trans.

[10] In these paragraphs the author defines the ancient areas of Samatat, eastern Ráŕh and western Ráŕh in terms of the districts of West Bengal, and regions adjoining West Bengal, that existed as of the composition of this book in 1981. Some of those districts have now been split up into various districts, while in other cases a few districts have been combined into one district. –Trans.

[11] The jurisdiction of a police station is often used in India to denote a geographical area. –Trans.

[12] Now six districts. –Trans.

[13] “…the farthest eastern part was that part of Gondwanaland that people nowadays call Ráŕh.… Elsewhere [in Gondwanaland] it was extremely cold and full of snowstorms. There was no proper environment there for human beings to evolve. Ráŕh had the living touch of warmth so humans came there first.” (Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, Shabda Cayaniká Part 1, “Apána” section) –Trans.

[14] In his book Prayojaner Paribháśá (“Necessary Technical Words” to be added to the Bengali and other languages), the author has listed the word “coctatius”, and as the equivalent word to be added to Bengali and other languages, has devised the term pratnapallii. (Literally “prehistoric lizard”; pratna = “prehistoric” and pallii = “lizard”.) The author uses the term to include some descendants of the prehistoric lizard as well. _Trans.

[15] The collective name of all a personʼs desiderata in the physical and psychic spheres, together with that personʼs Desideratum in the spiritual sphere. –Trans.

[16] Lit., “starting-point of civilization”. –Trans.

[17] Surnames of Ráŕhii Brahmins. –Trans

[18] Modern-day Singur in Hooghly District. –Trans.

Socio-Economic Exploitation in Ráŕh

This world of ours is made up of good and bad. And the good and the bad things are done not so much by nature as by human beings. The good things that humans have the capacity for are friendliness, intimacy, love, sweet amiability – both internal and external – sitting together to eat and to talk, trying to feel the joys and sorrows of others, and so on. And among the bad things that humans do, the first and foremost is the exploitation of one human by another. This exploitation occurs sometimes in the religious sphere, sometimes in the social sphere, sometimes in the mental sphere and sometimes in the economic sphere.

When human beings first appeared on earth, that was the Shúdra Age. Ráŕh was no exception. When the people of that age all began to feel that they should live collectively in order to fight against the obstacles and dangers of their adverse environment, they began to search for a chieftain. At the initial stage, a woman used to be the chieftain. Even though she may not have had to do anything, she served as a symbol of group-oriented living – just like a queen ant or a queen bee or a queen white ant. In this way there emerged the ancient matriarchal society. When, later on, it made way for the patriarchal society – when it became evident that a patriarchal society [patrilineal order] was necessary for determining the lineage of the children – males began to assume the roles of chieftains. These chieftains used to be called, in more polished language, rájás [kings]. Ráŕh too saw the emergence of patriarchal society. However, it was slightly different than in other parts of the world. In most countries, where the society was matriarchal, the matrilineal order of lineage prevailed, and where the society was patriarchal, the patrilineal order prevailed. Though Ráŕhʼs present social system is patriarchal, the systems of lineage and right to perform the last rites, and, in some cases, inheritance, are not completely patrilineal. What is found is a beautiful mixture of the patrilineal and matrilineal orders.

The male-dominated society is followed by the Kśatriya Age. At the initial stage there is only the kśatriyasʼ shásan [physical control and administration], but later comes shośań [exploitation] as well. During the Kśatriya Age, if the populace can flatter their king, they can pass their days happily. However, when the Vaeshya Age eventually follows, peopleʼs very existence becomes unbearable. The Kśatriya Age lasted for a long time in Ráŕh. However, soon after the fall of local kingdoms, the Vaeshya Age with all its ruthlessness tightened its noose around the people of Ráŕh. There being no way out, the hapless people of Ráŕh, like the people of other countries in the world, gave in to the exploitation of the Vaeshya Age.

The exploitation in Ráŕh was very extreme, and it still is. The vaeshya [capitalist] control and administration and vaeshya exploitation in Ráŕh manifests itself in two different ways: 1) exploitation by the local vaeshyas, which is relatively insignificant, and 2) exploitation by the outsider vaeshyas, which is very extreme. The fundamental difference between the exploitation by the local vaeshyas and that by the outsiders is this: though both are exploiters and the exploitation of both causes people to cry aloud for relief, the local exploiters mostly keep their exploitation-gotten wealth within the territory of the land, and hence there is a chance for that wealth to be utilized in future in the service of the people. But the outsider exploiters will in most cases transfer outside all the wealth that they have ruthlessly squeezed out of the land. This means that there is no chance whatsoever for those resources to be utilized in future in the service of the local people.

Today a heavy load of exploitation is breaking the backs of the people of Ráŕh. To save Ráŕh without delay, an all-round socio-economic rehabilitation plan is needed. Ráŕh is filled with natureʼs inexhaustible store, and yet the people of Ráŕh are not able to eat their fill of nutritious food. What a heart-rending sight! It may not be possible for the present inhabitants of Ráŕh alone to do all that is necessary to save their land from this miserable plight. So those from outside Ráŕh must also come forward to help Ráŕh, otherwise a highly-civilized and cultured human population will be ruined.

Nature has blessed Ráŕh bountifully with underground resources, above-ground resources, water resources, and everything else. It is up to human beings to arrange for the rational utilization and humane distribution of those gifts.

Ráŕh appears emaciated from starvation, miserably struck by misfortune, and chained with slumber because of the lack of proper consciousness regarding the need of the hour. Let all rational persons of the world think collectively about Ráŕhʼs distress, and let them come forward with their help to build up Ráŕh.

Ráŕh is the starting-point of human civilization, Ráŕh is the hub of human culture. Let that Ráŕh shine again in its own glory. Let that Ráŕh again brim over with fruits, flowers, treasures, humanity and spirituality. Let the shroud of mist obscuring Ráŕhʼs path of progress blow away, let Ráŕhʼs melancholy face brighten with a smile. With these good wishes, let me conclude.

Published in Bengal and Bengalees and in Ráŕh: The Cradle of Civilization.

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