5-3. Shaktisampátena cakragativardhanaḿ krántih.
[Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called “evolution”.]
shakti = force; sampátena (3rd case) = through application; cakra = cycle; gativardhanam = to accelerate the movement of; krántih = evolution: kram (to cross some hurdle)
Purport: When warriors degenerate into exploiters, sadvipras will establish the Vipra Age by subduing the exploiting warriors. Consequently, the advent of the Vipra Age, which should have occurred through a natural process, is expedited by the application of force. A change of ages in this way may be called kránti [“evolution”]. The difference between evolution and svábhávika parivarttana [natural change] is only this: in evolution the movement of the social cycle is accelerated by the application of force.
“If the resultant cumulative flow of innumerable individuals is termed the social or collective flow, then the latter’s trough and crest is shorter than the trough and crest of the individual flows. And this shortness of the collective wavelength hastens either a kránti [evolution] or a viplava [revolution].” (Ksattriya Age)
“The difficulties faced by those who have tried and are trying to break apart the structure of the Vaeshya Age in order to rebuild society on a humanistic foundation, are not less, but are in fact a little more, than the indescribable social tortures that great people suffered in the past when they tried to reform the social structure of the Vipra Age. This is because those who wanted to break apart the vipras’ structure had to fight the vipras and also the kśatriyas and shúdras under their protection, but those who want to strike at the vaeshyas’ structure have to fight against all the vipras, kśatriyas and shúdras who are obedient to the vaeshyas.
But there are similarities between the two. The common people misunderstand great people who act on their behalf and for their welfare, or even if they understand them, they do not give them their support. Their nerves, courage and labour are bought with the vaeshyas’ money.
The vipras exploit the masses in the Vipra Age under the pretence of religion, which cannot be challenged. The same thing occurs in the Vaeshya Age, but vaeshya exploitation is more dangerous. In the Vipra Age the vipras exploit others through religion in order to promote their personal interests, but in the Vaeshya Age the vipras exploit others through religion in order to promote both their own and the vaeshyas’ interests.
In the Vaeshya Age this religious exploitation is more psychic than physical, because the vaeshyas use the vipras to try to spread intellectual propaganda among the masses to prevent them from finding any philosophical justification for their suppressed grievances against the vaeshya structure. This intellectual propaganda aims to convince people that they are the victims of circumstance. It argues, “Everything is destiny. Everything is preordained.” Such doctrines help the vaeshyas to perpetuate their structure. They destroy the personal force of people and make them the playthings of fate. People accept the idea that everything is preordained, and support the status quo.
Those who try to break the structure of the Vaeshya Age and show the downtrodden the path of liberation, will have to advise the people to free themselves from the intoxicating effect of the opium of religion; otherwise how will they be able to serve the downtrodden people?
A group of exploiters loudly object to a remark that was made by the great Karl Marx concerning religion. It should be remembered that Karl Marx never opposed spirituality, morality and proper conduct. What he said was directed against the religion of his time, because he perceived, understood and realized that religion had psychologically paralysed the people and reduced them to impotence by persuading them to surrender to a group of sinners.” (The Vaeshya Age)
“Cultural evolution has also brought about, and is continuing to bring about, a considerable change in society. This change is taking place more or less uniformly in almost all the countries of the world. Cultural evolution cannot be considered bad, for although defects in some societies are infecting others, nevertheless interaction does have an immensely positive aspect: the human race, knowingly or unknowingly, is gradually building a new human culture through mutual cooperation.
The different expressions of life are termed “culture”. The greater the mutual contact and exchange of ideas between peoples of different countries, the closer they come to one another in the cultural sphere. The old, worn-out walls of literary tradition are in many places crumbling, and in other places have been smashed to smithereens. As a result a new kind of international literature is evolving, and this is certainly an auspicious augury for the future. But even the auspicious developments which result from natural clashes and counter-clashes may eventually end in frustration and failure due to humanity’s folly. In the absence of honesty, simplicity, spiritedness and genuine human love, internationalism may remain solely the caprice of the sáhityika. The harshness of reality may not be tolerable to the sáhityika, and therefore we cannot surrender human destiny to his or her whims. Sáhityikas must not become intoxicated with the colourful spell woven by their imaginations, nor should they drive humanity to despair by dwelling on the failures of the practical world and singing songs of frustration.
Sáhityikas must be closely attuned to the changes in both psychic trends and cultural evolution which remould the social structure. And not only sáhityikas, but all creators of art, should express a universalistic outlook through their pens or brushes. If artists or sáhityikas do not do that, we must conclude that their artistic talents have degenerated. In fact, their contributions will then be nothing but rubbish which may be fit for fertilizer, but if dumped nearby becomes hazardous to public health.
Artistic endeavour may be justified only when it results in the all-round development of society. If the sáhityika’s inspiration propels the social movement in a particular direction denying all other aspects of society, we cannot call it literature, because there is no real sentiment of benevolence behind his or her creation. A flow of ideas that is not complete in itself is never capable of leading practical life towards fulfilment and perfection.” (The Practice of Art and Literature)
“With the development of higher kośas through the process of psychic clash the existential feelings of human beings do not remain confined to their physical bodies alone but spread to those around them. Initially they think about the welfare of the members of their own families, but with the gradual evolution of their minds, they see themselves as members of a global society and become actively engaged in promoting the well-being of all. This gradual process of evolution leads the unit mind towards the Macrocosmic Mind.”
“It is not that a human has the chance of negative pratisaiṋcara only, due to his or her evolved ego; this ego renders a positive help in the movement towards Puruśottama (Macrocosmic Nucleus). In the animate phase the imagination of many works in harmony with the Supreme One. So if the unit mind at that stage of evolution directs its potentialities towards longing for the Great, the unit mind can accelerate its progress (that is, movement towards Puruśottama), and its progress can be many times speedier than what it was at the stages where the citta (mind-stuff), being in the crudest form, had not developed self-will but had to move according to the desire of the Macrocosm. In this march towards the supramundane, the unit mind gradually feels a closer touch of Puruśottama, and as the proximity of the two increases, the psychic gap between the reflected consciousness and the reflecting plate goes on diminishing and finally these two merge together. This supreme union of Puruśottama and the unit mind is known as yoga: Saḿyogo yogo ityukto jiivátmá Paramátmanah.
According to the urge of pratisaiṋcara the unit mind goes on dilating because of the ever-increasing reflected density of the Macrocosmic Nucleus. Here the microcosm acts as a mirror and the reflected consciousness is just like the reflection of the rays of the sun, in that, while being reflected, He also associates Himself with the plate. The association inculcates the sameness of the quality and so the associative reflection of the Nucleus – Puruśottama – will develop in the unit mind the broadness of His Cosmic Self and the final culmination of the march of this unitary self, or microcosm. The sameness of the unit and the Cosmic Mind is established, and the finality in association will result in the merger of the microcosm into Macrocosm. This is what is known as mukti.” (Pratisaiṋcara and Manah)
“A change from one age to another can also occur through evolution. However, although it is theoretically possible to establish a welfare state or genuine economic freedom through evolution, in practice it will not work. It is true that in Great Britain some of the minimum requirements of life are being provided to the people, but how great the difference is between rich and poor! Clearly their social system is capitalistic. The exploited and disgruntled people are given a small amount of sympathy to appease them. They are given a small taste of the dainties and delicacies, but their stomachs are never full.” (The Vipra Age)
“Countries that exploited their colonies used to make efforts to promote the welfare of their population within the democratic structure, but if they had wanted to contribute to social welfare and had stayed outside the democratic framework, preferring instead the path of shúdra revolution, they would have progressed faster, and without exploiting any colonies. In fact, in a democratic structure the people’s progress is very slow. It cannot be called revolution; rather it is evolution, that is, gradual change.
If undeveloped countries avoid the path of revolution and choose the path of slow change, or deliberately ignore the defects in democratic socialism or in the concept of a welfare state, the welfare of their people will never be anything but castles in the air. In order to secure votes in a democratic structure, the assistance of thieves, thugs and other antisocial elements is required. These antisocial elements certainly do not support candidates selflessly. They expect that when their candidate becomes a minister he or she will then turn a blind eye to the antisocial behaviour of their supporters.
One of the most important basic features of socialism is cooperative bodies. Cooperative bodies cannot survive unless the state administration is run by honest citizens. Similarly, a socialistic state cannot survive unless the cooperative organizations are run by honest citizens. Hence if the public does not have a very high moral, spiritual and educational standard (an average standard or above average standard will not suffice), we cannot expect to find worthy people as representatives, as ministers, or as directors of cooperative bodies. Dishonest directors of cooperative institutions will steal money; dishonest ministers will indirectly support such activities; and weak-minded ministers will deliberately avoid looking into those activities out of fear of losing their ministerships, or in hopes of securing votes in the future. If such abuses continue, it will never be possible to build up cooperative institutions, corruption will never be flushed out of the courts and secretariats, and socialism will never be established.
It is extremely difficult, although not totally impossible, to attain the high moral standard necessary to establish socialism within a democratic structure. Thus while democratic socialism is theoretically not bad, we cannot hope that it will ever be possible in the real world.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
“The universe gets created. Prakrti responsible for this creation or metamorphosis is known as Bhavánii; She is the energy of evolution. The metamorphosed Puruśabháva under the influence of Bhavánii is called Bhava. In Sanskrit bhava means “to become”. Here Puruśa has become the universe of creation and therefore Puruśa is called Bhava. The practical difference between Bhava and Bhavánii is the maximum, whereas the difference between Bhaerava and Bhaeravii was tending from the theoretical to the practical aspect.” (The Creation of the Universe)
“The transition from one age to the next may take place through natural change, evolution or revolution. Natural change or evolution can bring about change from the kśatriya era to the vipra era, and from the vipra era to the vaeshya era, but to eliminate vaeshya exploitation, the application of tremendous force is absolutely essential.” (The Place of Sadvipras in the Samája Cakra)
“And those who say, “Everything will be done gradually… why so much haste?” – their path is called the path of evolution. They can never accomplish any glorious task.” (Exploitation and Pseudo-Culture)
1) Shakti means “energy” as is commonly used in science. However shakti in Ananda Sutram refers to the fundamental principle of reality called the Cosmic Operative/Creative Principle. As Shrii Sarkar explains,
“Shiva and Shakti are the two aspects of the same reality. Shakti is not a separate entity: Shakti is the immanent principle and Shiva the transcendental. ‘Shakti’ means Operative Principle. In every action, two principles are required, one cognitive and another operative. Suppose you are a machine-man, you are operating a machine. In that case also two principles are working. You are operating the machine according to the dictates of your brain. So here this power of regulating the machine acts as the cognitive principle; the links, that is the muscles with which you are operating the machinery,
become the operative principle. The universe is also created by principles – the Cognitive Principle…and the Operative Principle… The composite name of Shiva and Shakti is Brahma.” (The Lord and His Name)
At different levels of the process of the evolution of the Cosmic Mind and the universe within it, different forms of shakti are created at the spiritual, psychic and physical levels. By meditation and other spiritual practices one develops more shakti as well greater purity and self-control which enables one to control the shakti for the welfare of others. As Shrii Sarkar explains,
“Humans accumulate shakti [power] through japa [mantra incantation], dhyána [meditation in which one merges with the radiance of the Lord as the Preceptor or Guru], kiirtana [singing the Lord’s Name], etc. Crude unit minds [, on the other hand,] receive an impetus to move forward [only] when clashes arise. Those living beings progress on the path of evolution as a result of clash. But having attained the form of human beings, they forget to accumulate power. The method through which humans acquire energy is called Tantra or yoga. Virtuous people endeavour to infuse motion into their stagnant lives through spiritual practices. Struggle on the spiritual plane is a necessity for social progress.” (Why Does Supreme Consciousness Descend?)
Thus even in worldly affairs one’s personality is developed through Tantra sádhana. Shrii Sarkar explains this process of acquiring shakti saying,
“To attain Tantric power one has to practise both external and internal sádhaná – has to stage a fight of both kinds. As a part of the external fight one has to apply a vigorous force or control over his or her worldly conduct and expression, while in the internal fight one has to arouse and to take up his or her kulakuńd́alinii against one’s crude thought with all the strength of one’s intuition…
The ascent of the kulakuńd́alinii is brought about through the practice of certain processes. At the sahasrára, or pineal gland, the kulakuńd́alinii drinks the hormone secreted by that plexus. The biological explanation of this is that the sádhaka attains control over the flow of nectar secreted from the sahasrára (i.e., over a particular hormone secreted from the pineal gland). This flow of nectar is the main support of divine life.
During this period of kuńd́alinii sádhaná (sádhaná establishing control over the “coiled serpentine”), sádhakas attain or establish control over the ascent and descent of the [suśumná] fluid. The mental trends of sádhakas are vitalized by the nectar of the sahasrára – by this hormone – and by the well-controlled movement of the [suśumná] fluid, bringing the sádhakas uncommon sagacity and vigour. The blending of such sagacity and vigour adorns a sádhaka with an attractive personality, with sharp intelligence and with an unparalleled spirit. Only under the sound leadership of such Tantrics can a dharmic social and national life be lived…
The proper role of human beings lies in [controlling] and harnessing all sorts of crude forces or trends. Thus not only is Tantra an asset in the spiritual world; but even in the most material and crude spheres of life there is no other recourse than to accept Tantric ideals.
Those who sparkle and arouse their vigour in the physical and the mental worlds by staging a struggle against crude tendencies become superhuman persons in human frames. Such personalities, adorned with vigour and vitality, receive ovations everywhere. As a matter of fact, whatever may be the social or administrative [system of a country] – whether it is a democratic republic, or a bureaucracy, or a dictatorship – only those rule who have [invoked] vigour and personality in themselves. Vigorous personalities always rule the weaklings. If individuals having great personalities and great vigour enter into politics, they become [strong or autocratic leaders], while others bow to their command…
Tantrics are to stage a fight against all crude forces, a pauseless struggle against inequality and cowardliness. Equality in society cannot be achieved if the [basis of power] is quantitative alone, without any consideration of qualitative value, for today those who do not try to invoke vigour in themselves by sádhaná far exceed in quantity those who do. So it is not by democracy, but by entrusting power to the true Tantrics, that equality in the economic and social spheres must be established in this material world. The establishment of equality is possible only by Tantrics and not by non-Tantrics. Of course not only in the mental and spiritual arena, but in the material sphere as well, complete or cent per cent equality is an impossibility. So Tantrics have to continue their fight indefinitely. For them where is the opportunity to have a rest? (Tantra and Its Effect on Society)
This then is the source of the energy that sadvipras must have in order to create genuine change in the collective psychology and in the society. This is why Lord Shiva had the mission Kurvantu vishvaḿ Tántrikam – “To get the whole universe initiated into the Tantric cult”.
2) The word “sampátena” comes from the word “sampáta” which means “falling rapidly, falling to the bottom, collision, confluence (merging of rivers), flight, point of intersection or contact”. This is referring here to the sudden descent or collision of shakti. In yoga this is called mantrágháta as Shrii Sarkar explains,
“Each and every mantra has the support of an acoustic root [biija mantra comprising various Sanskrit letters or varńas]: and when that acoustic root strikes at the root of the coiled serpentine [kuńd́alinii], it is aroused. This is called mantrágháta. After that, this roused coiled serpentine moves with the force, or the stamina, it gets from the mantra. It moves towards the supreme positivity, and this movement is called mantra caetanya.” (Diikśá and Initiation)
In Tantra this is called shaktipáta. However here the prefix ‘sam’is added. This means “proper, intensely, together, put together, refine, purify, to make perfect, whole, complete.” Hence this is a complete or intense descent of shakti that is required not awaken the collective mind and not the mind of an individual person.
3) Shrii Sarkar defines “gati” as follows
“The inherent dynamicity of an entity, depending on the existential collaboration of another entity (or in certain cases of other entities, in which case immobility becomes of indefinite character), is called its gati [movement].” (The Kśatriya Age)
Thus “gati” means “mobility, dynamics, speed”. The word “vardhana” means “nourishment, sustaining, developing, growing, thriving, increasing, strengthening, educating, making prosperous, delighting, exhilirating”. Just like a coach encourages and strengthens an athelete, just like a parent educates and delights a child, similarly the sadvipra is not only nourishing the dynamism of the society, of the collective psychology but is also causing a dramatic change in the cycle of varnas in the collective psychology. This requires the developed of a tremendous spiritual state as well as the attainment of tremendous shakti to nourish the collective mind like a parent does that of a small child. The other way this is possible is if one is merging in the flow of the Cosmic Mind and hence this work is done through one’s mind and body. In this regard one should note that there are three primary causes of evolution in the cosmos – physical clash, psychic clash and the Attraction of the Great. Physical clash in prehistoric times leads to the development of not just the body but also of the mind as well. However as Shrii Sarkar explains,
“But physical clash alone can only lead to a certain level of psychic progress. To progress beyond that psychic clash is required.
Through study, analysis, verification, listening to scriptural discourses, constant contemplation, and meditation unit minds acquire psychic power from the Cosmic Mind. To produce friction or commotion in others’ minds by proper application of these psychic powers is called psychic clash. Those who are mentally inert, who are blindly attached to old worn-out ideas, will no doubt refuse to accept new ideas, but questions will nevertheless arise in their minds. Constant psychic clash will cause their blind attachment for the old to gradually weaken.” (Struggle and Progress)
However the value of psychic clash is also limited,
“Even educated and intelligent people constantly indulge in mudslinging against others merely to attain name and fame, even though they are not greedy for money. Can this sort of psychic clash lead the mind towards subtlety? On the one hand ectoplasms (mind particles) are powdered down due to clash and their minds may achieve a fair degree of expansion, but on the other hand, under the domination of the propensity of greed, their minds gradually move towards greater crudity…
When one’s mind becomes more subtle and expanded, it is no longer assailed by petty thoughts. The mind-atoms (atoms of ectoplasm) will be powdered down, and in the fire of sadhana those powdered-down atoms will become ensconced in non-duality [pure Consciousness]. So physical and psychic clash achieve their highest fulfilment in the attraction of the Great. Without this divine attraction, life loses its charm.” (Cosmic Attraction and Spiritual Cult)
This attraction of the Great is experienced not just by spiritual practices but also through aesthetics and the arts. Hence Shrii Sarkar terms the science of divine attraction as “supra-aesthetics”. This is one reason Shrii Sarkar has said that a Sadvipra must have the mindset of the gopi (higher devotee) who lives only to give bliss to the Supreme Beloved – the Soul of our souls. He also explains how with this divine love that arises after experiencing the Attraction of the Great, one has the capacity to accelerate one’s evolution in the Cosmic cycle from matter to Consciousness (pratisaincara),
“According to divine decree, if the negative Vidyá force in pratisaiṋcara is sixty and the positive Avidyá force is forty, then the resultant Vidyá force is twenty. With the help of this resultant force of Vidyá (twenty), Parama Puruśa attracts microcosms towards Himself. If microcosms surrender totally to Vidyá, they will certainly attain Brahma some day. And if the microcosms can, by virtue of sadhana, accelerate the flow of Vidyá, then their resultant Vidyá force will merge in the resultant Vidyá force of Brahma. This pursuit of Vidyá in individual life is the sadhana of Saguńa Brahma [the Qualified Supreme Entity]. But if one wrongly pursues the path of Avidyá, one moves counter to the resultant Vidyá force of Brahma. The result of this movement against the Cosmic will can never be good. Philosophically it is known as pralaya [annihilation]. Hence while doing the sadhana of Saguńa Brahma, one has to increase the Vidyá force.
Sá vidyá yá vimuktaye – “Vidyá is that which brings liberation.” Now the question is, with how much force can microcosms advance? As long as human beings advance due to the resultant Vidyá force of the Supreme Entity, they are regarded as sádhakas of sentient devotion; that is, the wave of the resultant force during the pratisaiṋcara phase is the wave of sentient devotion. In the flow of their movement they only have one desire in their minds, the desire for liberation. And when they cleanse themselves of all impurities and take the help of the full negative force in order to become one with Nucleus Consciousness, the devotion through which they advance is called rágátmiká bhakti [“non-attributional devotion”]. At that phase of sadhana they do not desire liberation, but yearn for Parama Puruśa alone. In this category of devotees the resultant Vidyá force of twenty is converted into the original sixty Vidyá force [of the Supreme Entity].”
The essence of the Sadvipra is that she/he accomplishes this not just in his/her own mind but also in the collective mind. This is the key to accelerating the dynamism of the collective psychology of a society. From this we can understand how divine love will be the driving force of a sadvipra society.
4) The Sanskrit word “kránti” means “overcoming, surpassing, attacking, proceeding, and the course or trajectory of a planet or the sun.” It comes from the verb “kram” meaning “to step, go towards, approach, take possession of, cross over a hurdle, climb, strive after, advance, gain a footing, be successful.” Evolution of the collective psychology involves overcoming the dogmas, customs, states of mind that cause a society to remain stagnant or with a low rate of dynamism. The difficulty in carrying out the evolution of a society depends upon which stage this particular society is in. As we have seen each varna goes through a cycle of development and degeneration. Shrii Sarkar has explained this simply as follows:
“The human respiratory system also provides us with a good comparison with the systaltic flow of movement. Puraka [inhalation] can be compared with the movement towards manifestative pause. The retention of breath at the end of puraka (púrńa kumbhaka) is manifestative pause. Recaka [exhalation] is the movement towards systolic pause. And holding the breath after complete exhalation (shúnya kumbhaka) is systolic pause. In the retention of breath after inhalation there is manifestation of time and continuity of movement, but no sense of dynamism. In the total exhalation, however, there is no manifestation of time but there is continuity of movement minus the sense of dynamism. [From the end of] one puraka to the beginning of another puraka constitutes half of the cycle of respiration. After every such half-cycle or trip, that is, in every post-exhalation pause, there occurs the death of the unit being. But after gathering vitality for the second time from this death or state of pause, the unit being comes alive again during the next inhalation. If, after the full cycle of inhalation and exhalation, the physical mechanism is unable to gather vital force from the state of pause, further inhalation becomes impossible and what we commonly call death occurs.” (The Kśatriya Age)
From this remarkable passage we glimpse that, not just individuals, but societies also die during times of social pause when a particular varna has reached the maximum extent of development or when it has reached the maximum extent of degradation. At such moments it is very difficult to bring about social evolution while during the early days when a particular psychological class (varna) is developing in a progressive manner it is much easier to do so. The role of the sadvipra is to launch a change in the varna of the collective psychology when a particular varna or social group in power reaches its maximum state of development (manifestative pause) so that society does not suffer the unending misery that occurs when a particular psychological class (varna) starts to degenerate and become exploitative.
Now, one may rightly ask why would not a sadvipra simply launch a revolution if she/he has the capacity to do so – why launch a procces of social revolution at all? The answer is that firstly in order to bring to an end the rule of a particular psychological class, one has to create an antithesis and this takes some time. In addition the collective mind of many societies is weak and undeveloped and hence is not able to handle such a revolution without mass chaos. The sadvipra has to nourish the dynamism of the collective mind so that it become ready for a change in varna. This happens usually through a process of evolutionary development. It is important to note however that most evolutions and revolutions in history have occurred naturally and not as the result of the will-force (iccha shakti, connation) of an individual or group of individuals although powerful personalities have had dramatic impacts upon various societies. This is possible for sadvipras only because they are merging with the nucleus of the Cosmos – the Supreme Beloved, the Soul of our souls and the blazing flames of the love that they experience enable them to surmount impossible odds.
Examples of such evolution include intellectual and cultural change such as found in various forms of renaissance such as seen in Periclean Athens, Gupta India, Tang Dynasty China and of course the European renaissance. In addition there have been attempts to remove dogma and superstition from society such as seen in the Nirgun bhakti movement and in the European Englightenment. Also there have been movements for social justice such as the anti-slavery movement, various anti-caste movements, anti-racism movements and anti-colonial movements. Finally there have been movement to spread mysticism and in particular mystical love such as seen in the bhakti, sufi and other mystical movements in Europe.
Just as the sadvipra launches a nuclear revolution or all-pervading, multi-dimensional revolution when possible, similarly a sadvipra will launch evolutionary movements in all realms of economics, politics, agriculture, intellectuality, culture and spirituality. This will create a rapid flowering of the collective psychology. It is in such ways that Sadvipras with work night and day to serve and to delight the collective mind of their society with endless enlightenment and love.
5-4. Tiivrashaktisampátena gativardhanaḿ viplavah.
[Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “revolution”.]
tiivra = tremendous, sudden and severe; shakti = force; sampátena (3rd case) = through application; gativardhanaḿ = to accelerate the movement of; viplavah = literally “the flow that inundates everything”, i.e., revolution
Purport: When a particular age is replaced by the successive age within a short time, or when the application of tremendous force is necessary to destroy the entrenched hegemony of a particular age, then such change is called viplava [“revolution”].
“It is doubtful whether the Supreme Creator, let alone humanity, has the right to punish those who commit crimes due to poverty. Still, from the moral standpoint, I cannot support criminal acts. I would suggest that before committing such crimes they should become revolutionaries. It is the duty of those with a good knowledge of morality to guide them in their revolutionary activities. Let them separate the gold from the dross in the fire of revolution.
On the subject of corrective measures for those who become criminals due to poverty, honest people have no alternative but to exhort them to launch a revolution. In this situation the position of a judge is like that of a figurehead; he or she has nothing to say or do. Psychologists and sociologists also have very limited scope for action; the pathways that lie open to them are very circumscribed. The solution completely depends on the firm economic foundation of the different individual countries as well as of the entire world. If anyone is at fault it is every one of the world leaders. Their responsibilities do not end when they gain power by creating false hopes and deceiving the common people with remote and unattainable dreams.
People can score points in intellectual battles by hiding their inefficiency behind grandiloquent speeches, but if they do, the demands of the proletariat, who struggle for existence like animals, will not be heard. They will never be able to forget their hunger and ignore their psychic longings and simultaneously dedicate themselves wholeheartedly to the enormous task of developing their country and building a universal human society in a better way.
Those whose stomachs are full can always forget about the hunger of others. The world has become accustomed to, but has experienced quite enough of, the procrastination and heartless histrionics of such blood-sucking brutes. By inventing crises, they force the needy to commit crimes; by hoarding grains, they cause artificial famines and indirectly incite starving people to steal; and by making people’s circumstances difficult and subsequently enticing them with money, they encourage men to abandon their families and compel women to earn their living in an immoral way. Because they remain above suspicion and appear to be honest according to the laws of the land, which in many countries are enacted for the benefit of the upper stratum of society, ordinary people are unable to raise their voices in protest. It can be said that the only path open to them is the path of revolution.
People look among the leaders of their country for someone to take up the noble task of protecting ordinary, simple people like themselves from the exploitation of blood-sucking brutes. Those who transform ordinary people into beasts by forcing them to live in extremely difficult circumstances are, in my opinion, the ones who should be put on trial.” (Justice)
“Shastra means the effort to control people by physical force like slapping, pushing or pinching, etc. That is, in shastra there is physical contact and every possibility of shedding blood. Astra means to control or dominate others by using a weapon like a stick, knife, gun, etc. Here bloodshed will almost always happen. Thus shástra takes an indirect approach, while both shastra and astra take the direct approach. So shastra viplava and astra viplava are both forms of physical revolution. Viplava means revolution in Saḿskrta. These forms of revolution cannot be bloodless.” (Religious Dogma)
“In the future, changes in society will take place with accelerating speed.
One of the scientific processes of social change is viplava or revolution. The Saḿskrta word viplava is derived from the Vedic root verb vi minus plu plus al. In the wake of every revolution, radical changes occur in individual and social life, and far-reaching changes take place in the collective psychology.
The main factor in revolution is the application of tremendous force to move society forward. PROUT defines revolution as,
Tivrashaktisampátena gatibardhanaḿ viplavah
Replacing one age by another by crushing exploitation and bringing about a change in the collective psychology within a short period of time through the application of tremendous force is what is called “revolution”…
The main task of revolution is to overcome the barriers of staticity and inertia in the collective psychology of one age and establish the next age in the order of the social cycle. Society moves according to the inexorable laws of the social cycle, yet those who are concerned for the collective welfare will always endeavour to accelerate the speed of social movement by fighting relentlessly against exploitation so that all can move forward together in unison.
When the psychic balance in social life undergoes a revolutionary change, certain factors remain inseparably associated with that change. Some of those factors are the collective upsurge against exploitation; revolt against the status quo; effective struggle to the benevolent forces against the malevolent forces; and the longing for a new collective psychology among the people. (Nuclear Revolution)
“If the resultant cumulative flow of innumerable individuals is termed the social or collective flow, then the latter’s trough and crest is shorter than the trough and crest of the individual flows. And this shortness of the collective wavelength hastens either a kránti [evolution] or a viplava [revolution].” (The Kśatriya Age)
“During the period of the monarchy intellectuals began to consolidate greater power by dint of their intelligence, and an ecclesiastical society was established in the guise of the monarchy. Thus social power went into the hands of priests. So long as the monarchy was faultless nobody opposed it, but when the priests exploited the society in the guise of ecclesiasticism the people came to the end of their patience and a revolution occurred. The result of this revolution was the establishment of democracy.” (Compartmentalized Democracy)
“You should never hold any particular caste or community responsible for the ruin of the society – this is completely false. You yourself are responsible for it.
Now, those who are courageous enough to speak out this truth in clear language – those who say, “Shatter this bondage of limitation!” – their path is called the path of revolution. (Exploitation and Pseudo-Culture)
“Rich, selfish people sometimes suppress the poorer sections of society by binding them with illogical ideas in order to accumulate greater wealth or enjoy more luxury. The caste system in India has been used to exploit people in this way. In the past, for example, high caste people propagated the idea that it was a sin for so-called low caste milk vendors to give them water. This was done to ensure that the high caste people were supplied with pure, undiluted milk. However, it was not considered a sin for high caste people to take water from so-called low caste sweet vendors. Otherwise, high caste people would not have been permitted to consume the numerous delicious sweets prepared from milk and water.
The privileged classes invariably think of their own comforts. They infuse the poorer sections of society with inferiority complexes in order to exploit them, and then force them to become their obedient servants. But eventually the poor people revolt against such exploitation, even if it takes one, two, three or more generations. People will always revolt against those things that go against human psychology. When oppression crosses the limits of human tolerance and endurance, revolution is inevitable.
All dogma must be rooted out. You should start a revolution against dogma. But to start a revolution you need courage. So gather that courage and start a revolution against dogma.” (Religious Dogma)
“A socio-economic ideal can be established by either of the following two methods: (1) intellectual revolution; (2) physical revolution.
Intellectual revolution stands for the propagation of ideals, but to materialize these ideals takes a pretty long time. Suffering humanity is not going to wait for this. Intellectual revolution is possible in theory only.
When the hopes and aspirations of a group of people – a majority or a minority – are not fulfilled in a democratic framework, a non-democratic or sanguinary revolution is sure to take place. Such a revolution, although undesirable, is inevitable and irresistible.
Physical revolution denotes fight against all factors which go against the principle of public welfare. The Proutists will inaugurate a new era of revolution against all sorts of fissiparous tendencies and social evils. If a country’s laws are not strong enough to rectify the conduct of immoralists, the Proutists will do something concrete…
As intellectual revolution is of a democratic nature, Proutists are to make people conscious of their rights and demands. [This can be done by:]
- Starting study circles and popularizing [ideological] literature. This is the first phase of intellectual propaganda. It stands for ideological education.
- Platform propaganda and mobilizing the mass. This is for ideological consciousness because the mass can never be ideologically educated.
- The Proutists supporting the sadvipras in democratic fights (that is, helping them in occupying seats in parliament, assemblies, local self-governments, cooperative societies, etc.)” (Discourses on Prout)
“In all human actions the tender touch of humanity should be present. Those with the tendency to not deprive others cannot, on the grounds of justice and equity, accept the principle of private ownership. The economic structures in the world today, however, are not based on human rights. In order to recognize human rights, one will have to be ready for revolutionary changes, and one will also have to welcome them. The socialization of landed property, industry, trade and commerce – almost everything – is the major objective of this revolution…
All movements are systaltic. If the phase of contraction is made more stringent by the application of force, a forward galloping jump occurs in the following phase of expansion. Evolution which takes place as a result of this forward galloping jump is properly called viplava [revolution]. Similarly, if the phase of expansion is prolonged by the application of force, then the following phase of contraction will undergo greater inertia.” (Problems of the Day)
“In communism, the leaders want to control the people through brute force, but in PROUT we will inspire people through selfless service. Communists do not support selfless service, and believe that if people are given service, then they will become satisfied and not revolt against the system. But this belief is false. In the great Bengal famine more than five million people died due to starvation, but nobody revolted. If you do service, if you teach people and encourage them to develop their rationality, then they will revolt against an inhuman system. Disorganised and irrational people are incapable of launching a revolution.” (Suppression, Repression and Oppression)
“Such people attempt to cover their harmful or defective sentiments under a veil of hypocrisy. This concealing mentality is one aspect of hypocrisy. Consider, for instance, the case of vocal revolutionaries. They talk glibly of revolution outwardly, but in their heart of hearts, they want to avoid revolution. They say one thing openly, but they do just the opposite in practical life. It is very hard to identify such gilded human chameleons.” (Awakened Conscience)
“It is very easy to talk big about revolution. Audiences may be awestruck and applaud, but to actually bring about a revolution is not at all easy.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
“Everything should be done with proper direction, proper guidance. As for instance, people utter loudly the word revolution, revolution, but revolution does not mean putting buses and trains on fire or removing the railway lines. This causes damage to government and government is people’s. Therefore it is a damage to the people themselves. All these are destructive approaches. The persons who do such destructive approaches lack in knowledge.” (Astitva and Shivatva)
“So, we notice that in the sphere of society building, there are two distinct psychologies. One is service psychology, which inspires people to promote collective interest. The second is group psychology, which only tries to promote the limited interest of a small group. Those who are guided by service psychology do not like to separate politics from morality. Their thoughts and ideas remain far above narrow group interests. On the other hand, those who are guided by group psychology want to establish the authority of their group and impose their interests on others. This leads to interpersonal and inter-group conflict. Only the synthetic approach leads to unity and cohesion amongst numerous individuals and groups. The followers of the analytical path often become vocal revolutionaries, and become extremely active to establish their raj (kingdom) entirely without niiti (morality). Thus out of these two distinct types of psychology two social outlooks arise: those who are guided by service psychology have a synthesis outlook, and those who are guided by narrow group interest or self-interest adopt an analytic outlook.
Those guided by group psychology are like ravenous tigers. Of all the different types of flesh, human flesh is said to be the most delicious. That’s why the tiger that has once tasted human flesh will raid a village if it cannot get human flesh in the jungles. If it happens to see human beings nearby, it will immediately attack them without bothering about domestic cattle. Where the analytical approach is ingrained in people’s social psychology, separatist tendencies flow through their bones, blood and marrow. Such people become extremely avaricious for human flesh. That’s why those who have rejected the path of synthesis and are guided by group psychology and have accepted separatism as a political creed, are lying in ambush to catch any group for their blood. Beating the drum made from the skin of their victims, they announce to the world that they have annihilated the separatist elements.” (Service Psychology and Group Psychology)
“At the beginning of the Vaeshya Age some social spirit still exists in them alongside the desire to make money. Whatever their motive may be, the vaeshyas do sometimes spend generously on social service and charitable activities, but by the end of the Vaeshya Age they lose even the last vestiges of social consciousness, and as a result of their foolhardiness shúdra revolution occurs.
At the beginning of the Vaeshya Age the vaeshyas use their money-making intellect both for social service and for accumulating money, and in these matters they take advice from other members of society. But by the end of the Vaeshya Age they become so irresponsible due to the intoxication of accumulation that they are not prepared to take advice from anyone. They use their money-making intellect solely to exploit society.” (The Vaeshya Age)
“There are both honest and dishonest kśatriyas, but the majority of kśatriyas are dishonest. It is often observed that when shúdras are led by kśatriyas they readily support revolution or counter-revolution, like insects attracted to a fire and burnt by the flames. The kśatriyas usually acquire name, fame, wealth and influence by totally cheating the shúdras. To win the minds of the ignorant shúdras they have cheated, the kśatriyas praise them lavishly for their victories. This praise of their hollow victories makes the shúdras forget their defeat. During the post-revolutionary period, the shúdras, instead of thinking about their own interests, believe that the greatest achievement of their lives has been to be the standard-bearers of the deceitful kśatriyas.” (The Kśatriya Age)
“When the once disgruntled classes began to engage in exploitation, profiteering and black marketeering, thriving off the life blood of others, then the exploited, oppressed and rebellious people started a bloody revolution for the destruction of the bourgeois class.” (Dialectical Materialism and Democracy)
“So long as a proper atmosphere for Shúdra revolution is not created, it can be said that no social consciousness has been created. How can social consciousness be achieved?
Social consciousness implies the influence of a particular ideology and a new awakening among the people due to this ideology. This depends upon so many factors, the most important of which is the leadership of a great personality. Shúdra revolution, therefore, needs a strong personality, and so long as this is lacking a strong society cannot be formed, what to speak of social revolution. To guide the society in the right path two factors are therefore essential – a great ideology and a great personality. Those who talk loud about society and seem horrified at its anticipated destruction, do not know that society in the true spirit of the term is yet to be formed in the world. So our primary duty now is to form a society. The seed of social consciousness is inherent in our “Saḿgacchadhvaḿ saḿvadadhvaḿ” Mantra. Where there is no such Mantra there is no ideology, and where there is no ideology, life is a goalless voyage.” (The Interplay of Culture and Civilization)
“Those who exploit human beings to serve their own self-interests do not want socio-economic freedom to be granted to people. That is why they continue their psycho-economic exploitation in such a way that people do not clamour for socio-economic freedom. They do not directly exploit the people in the social or economic sphere, but in the psycho-economic sphere, and they do it so intelligently that people are totally unaware of it, and hence are unable to develop their yatamána outlook properly. Moreover, the exploited masses are also unable to develop economically because the exploiters control the economy in a subtle way.
However, a day comes when some intelligent people emerge from the exploited masses having detected the exploiters’ techniques to dupe the people, even though the media is controlled. At this stage the exploiters become active intellectually to prevent the germination of the seed of liberation. They take control of the education system, the printing presses and the propaganda agencies in a last and desperate attempt to raise high embankments to contain the surging tide of public discontent. But soon after comes the day of change when the vikśubdha shúdras [disgruntled masses] rise up in revolt and the high sand embankments get washed away by the floods of revolution. After this the masses make an independent appraisal of the type of socio-psycho-economic exploitation they were subjected to. Before the revolution they may have discussed social injustice in private amongst themselves, but if they had tried to propagate their discontent publicly their tongues would have been cut.” (Yatamána – 2)
“The transition from one age to the next may take place through natural change, evolution or revolution. Natural change or evolution can bring about change from the kśatriya era to the vipra era, and from the vipra era to the vaeshya era, but to eliminate vaeshya exploitation, the application of tremendous force is absolutely essential.
As a result of vaeshya exploitation, those having kśatriya or vipra mentalities are transformed into the disgruntled slaves of the vaeshyas. They have no alternative but to toil at the behest of the vaeshyas to fill their bellies. Those kśatriyas and vipras who are turned into shúdras under circumstantial pressure carry a simmering discontent in their hearts. This group are known as the “vikśubdha shúdras” or the “disgruntled workers”. These disgruntled workers – the exploited vipras and kśatriyas – give systematic expression to the frustrations of the masses to end vaeshya exploitation. This is the class with revolutionary distinction.
The revolution which terminates the capitalist era requires the united struggle of the disgruntled workers. Shúdras can never be the actual revolutionaries because they lack sufficient moral stamina, responsibility and fighting spirit. They are vulnerable to many vices and are not well-established in human values, hence they cannot develop the requisite revolutionary character. The vikśubdha shúdras develop into genuine revolutionaries because they acquire the moral courage and discipline to oppose exploitation.
The revolution against capitalist exploitation is termed “shúdra revolution”. Although the kśatriyas and vipras are turned into vikśubdha shúdras due to capitalist exploitation, immediately after shúdra revolution, the vikśubdha shúdras revert to their kśatriya and vipra psychologies. Because of the martial character of shúdra revolution, the leadership of society passes into the hands of the kśatriyas, hence a new kśatriya era emerges. Even during the kśatriya era, the vipras try to establish their influence through force of intellect and attempt to move society along the path of vipra psychology. The vipra era is followed by the vaeshya era and then again by shúdra revolution. So, the movement of the social cycle and revolution are inseparably related.” (Nuclear Revolution)
“The inevitable consequence of vaeshya exploitation is shúdra revolution. When the vaeshyas, maddened with excessive greed, lose their common sense completely and forsake their humanity totally, then for shúdra revolution the opportune time has come. However, it cannot be said that shúdra revolution will automatically occur just because an opportune time has come. Proper conditions relating to place and person will bear much of the responsibility.
Revolution takes place when, from the economic perspective, only two classes remain in society: the exploiting vaeshyas and the exploited shúdras. But if there are no vipras and kśatriyas from a mental standpoint – in other words if there are no people who, though shúdras from an economic standpoint, are vipras or kśatriyas from a mental standpoint – shúdra revolution will not be possible. It is not the work of people who have a shúdra mentality to bring about revolution. They avoid struggle; they are playthings of the vaeshyas.
At the high point of the Vaeshya Age, the vaeshyas easily manipulate the shúdra-minded shúdras. If the kśatriya- and vipra-minded shúdras lack spirit, they will also be bought by the vaeshyas’ money. Thus shúdra revolution ultimately depends on shúdras who have sufficient spirit and are mentally vipras or kśatriyas.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
Obstacles to Revolution
Those who want to bring about proletariat revolution with the help of manual labourers only will not succeed unless they take into consideration the mentality of the people involved. Shúdra-minded people do not understand their own problems; they do not even have the courage to dream about solving them. No matter how well labour leaders explain the problems to them or how fiery their lectures on the need for struggle be, it will not have any influence over their minds. They will spend their time eating, drinking, and getting violently drunk. They cannot think about who in their families is eating properly or getting an education or not. If their bosses increase their wages, they will merely spend more on their addiction; their standard of living will not be raised. That is why I say that such people do not and cannot bring about a shúdra revolution. It is not only undesirable but also foolish for those who want to bring about revolution to depend on such people; their static nature will thwart its movement, their cowardice will prematurely extinguish the fire of revolution.
Besides this type of mentality, national and religious traditions also often thwart revolution. It is extremely difficult for kśatriya- and vipra-minded shúdras to go against such traditions, let alone shúdra-minded shúdras. People become averse to revolution due to the following ideas: “Whatever is fated will happen; does fighting accomplish anything?”; “Our days are somehow passing by, so why should we trouble ourselves?”; or incorrect interpretations of the niśkáma karmaváda [doctrine of desireless action] of the Giitá or other scriptures.
In fact, a subtle analysis will reveal that the policy of establishing a welfare state on a democratic base is also an obstacle to revolution; as are the ideals of Gandhism and the high-sounding theory of democratic socialism.
The Bhúdán movement is also a reactionary movement in this way. Although I have high regard for the founders of Gandhism and the Bhúdán movement – as men they are second to none – their philosophies are extremely harmful for poor people.
Some of the philosophical interpretations of janmántaraváda [the doctrine of transmigration of souls, or reincarnation] also oppose revolution; that is, they argue, “You are starving in this life because you committed many sins in your last life, so what is the point of launching a movement? Destiny cannot be changed.”
That is why I have said that kśatriya- and vipra-minded shúdras will bring about the people’s revolution. For this, these shúdras will have to be thoroughly prepared, suffer a lot and make great sacrifices. They will have to fight against opposing groups and doctrines.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
“In a capitalistic social system or in a democratic structure the situation of middle-class people (the vikśubdha shúdras) is generally miserable. This is because they are the greatest critics of capitalism and the strongest opponents of exploitation. An increase in the number of vikśubdha shúdras in a society is an early omen of a possible shúdra revolution. It is therefore the duty of those who want to create a world free of exploitation to help to increase the number of vikśubdha shúdras. It will be harmful for the revolution if these people die or are transformed into shúdra-minded shúdras. All the sadvipras in the world should be vigilant to make sure that the number of vikśubdha shúdras does not decrease due to unemployment, birth control, or other bad practices or policies.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
“Revolution means a great change. In order to bring about such a change it is not inevitable that there will be killing and bloodshed. If the kśatriya-minded vikśubdha shúdras are in the majority, or are most influential, however, the revolution will indeed come about through bloody clashes. Iit cannot be unequivocally stated that a revolution can never be brought about through intellectual clash, without bloodshed – it is possible, if there are a large number of influential vipra-minded shúdras among the vikśubdha shúdras. But we cannot have much hope that this will be the case; so it has to be said that the liberation of the people generally involves bloodshed.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
Whether they have kśatriya intellects or vipras intellects, the vikśubdha shúdras who take over the leadership of the shúdra revolution are kśatriyas in terms of their courage, personal force and capacity to take risks. After the shúdra revolution the leadership of society passes to the vikśubdha shúdras, at which point their kśatriya qualities become still more strongly expressed. In the post-revolutionary period they cannot be called vikśubdha shúdras; by that time they have become the kśatriyas of the second rotation of the social cycle.
The moral, spiritual fighters who keep an eye on the kśatriyas to ensure they do not descend into an exploitative role in the future, are called sadvipras. If the kśatriyas descend into exploitation, the sadvipras will fight them and establish the Vipra Age in the second rotation of the social cycle. If the vipras descend into exploitation, they will also fight against the vipras and initiate the Vaeshya Age of the second rotation. And if the vaeshyas descend or wish to descend into an exploitative role, the sadvipras will inspire the vikśubdha shúdras and bring about a second shúdra revolution.” (Shúdra Revolution and Sadvipra Society)
“We may recall the definition of shúdras as persons who live by manual work or labour hard for their livelihood. This age of capitalism is the age when the large majority of society turn into such shúdras. This develops into dejection and dissatisfaction on a large scale because of an internal clash in the mind, because the psychology of society is essentially dynamic in nature and the mind itself exists as a result of constant clash. These conditions are necessary and sufficient for labourers, whether manual or mental, to organize and stand up against the unnatural impositions in life. This may be termed “shúdra revolution”. The leaders of this revolution, also, are people physically and mentally better-equipped and more capable essentially of overthrowing the capitalistic structure by force. In other words, they are also kśatriyas. So, after a period of chaos and catastrophe, once more the same cycle – Shúdra Age to Kśatriya to Vipra, and so on – recommences.” (The Place of Sadvipras in the Samája Cakra)
“Ánanda Parivára or establishing a universal spiritual family involves not only a World Government but also a Universal Government. More correctly it is a universal social order. The question is, how can such a Parivára be established? This will certainly come through revolution which may be democratic or undemocratic; or it may be a pyramidical, palace or nuclear revolution. Among all the types of revolution, nuclear revolution is the best. The nucleus of creation is Cosmic Consciousness. It is also the goal of revolutionaries, and whatever they do by way of revolution with this goal in mind leads them to the culminating point of their life’s march. Revolution must have an ideological goal. In essence, revolution means controlling all the three nuclei of the universe – physical, psychic and spiritual.” (Talks on Prout)
“According to their form and character, it is generally considered that the types of revolution include palatial change and pyramidical revolution. Palatial change and pyramidical revolution are not revolutions in the true sense because they may or may not result in the change of the collective psychology and the forward movement of the social cycle.
PROUT advocates another type of revolution called “nuclear revolution”. In nuclear revolution, every aspect of collective life – social, economic, political, cultural, psychic and spiritual – is completely transformed. New moral and spiritual values arise in society which provide the impetus for accelerated social progress. The old era is replaced by a new era – one collective psychology is replaced by another. This type of revolution results in all-round development and social progress.
Nuclear revolution can only be brought about by sadvipras who reside in the nucleus of the social cycle. Through their concerted effort, moral and spiritual power and all-round endeavour, they mobilize the exploited sections of society to overthrow the ruling class – the exploiters. This very struggle for mass upheaval liberates society from exploitation and ushers in a new era of peace and prosperity.
Sadvipras will control the key points at the nucleus of the social structure. In nuclear revolution, there is minimum loss of life and property, and the transformation of society is accomplished within a very short span of time.
Requirements For Nuclear Revolution
There are several requirements for the success of nuclear revolution – the presence of exploitation in any form, revolutionary organization, positive philosophy, revolutionary cadres, infallible leadership and revolutionary strategy. All these requirements are necessary.
The presence of exploitation. There are various types of exploitation in society. The form and character of exploitation changes as per changes in time, place and person. In every era of the social cycle, there are various kinds of exploitation. For example, in the economic sphere there is feudal exploitation, colonial exploitation, capitalist exploitation, imperialist exploitation and fascist exploitation. Exploitation may also manifest in such spheres as the physical, psychic, economic, political and cultural spheres. In the past the slave system was prevalent in the Greek and Roman Empires. The rulers sucked the blood of the vanquished to bolster their own interests. In psychic exploitation, the masses are misled with the help of pseudo-philosophies which encourage dogma and narrowmindedness. Democratic socialism and the theory of peaceful coexistence are examples of the hypocrite’s psychology. In economic exploitation, vested interests deprive people of their minimum requirements. Money lending, charging exorbitant interest rates, compelling poor farmers to sell their produce through distress sales, etc., are examples of economic exploitation. Regardless of the type of exploitation used by the exploiters, when society is moving towards revolution, the role of the exploiters is exposed. The exploiters are unable to disguise their exploitation any longer.
The existence of exploitation in society can be ascertained through the prevalence of such factors as extreme poverty; social insecurity; injustices against the common people; lack of purchasing capacity to acquire the minimum requirements of life; huge economic and social differences between various classes; the irrational distribution of wealth; etc. The present social, economic and political conditions in India exemplify all these ailments. India is on the verge of revolution.
Revolutionary organization. Revolution and war are almost the same. Revolution is a type of war. The difference between the two is that in war force is applied on behalf of a person or state, but in revolution, force is applied by a group of people to establish a society free from exploitation. A revolutionary organization is essential for revolutionary war. During the psychic preparation for revolution, the disgruntled sections of society will have to build a revolutionary organization which will create a congenial environment for revolution.
A diverse, multifarious organization is required to conduct revolution. The responsibility of the organization is like that of a government. The revolutionary organization must be operational from the highest level of the state down to the village level. Local activists or coordinators are connected to every level of the structure. All the activities of the revolution are directed by the highest body.
If a revolution is started without building a proper structure, or if loopholes are left in the formation of the structure, the results will be disastrous. In the struggle for Indian independence, for example, the revolutionary leaders failed to build a structure down to village level, and the British seized upon this organizational weakness. Such loopholes cause unpardonable losses. This occurred in recent Indian history.
Positive philosophy. The revolutionary organization must follow a positive philosophy. A progressive, comprehensive ideology is the invincible weapon of the revolutionary organization. It counteracts negative ideas in society and generates a powerful, positive psychic flow in the collective psychology. People become revolutionary-minded, yet vested interests determinedly try to resist positive change, hence polarization occurs in the collective psychology. The duty of the revolutionary leaders is to create polarization through the propagation of a positive philosophy.
The philosophy of the revolutionary organization should be free from all kinds of narrow defects and dogma. If there are any defects in the philosophy or if it is not comprehensive, there is the danger that the leadership of society will go out of the control of the revolutionaries. This will be extremely harmful for the progressive development of the society.
In addition, the philosophy must be based on practice, not on theory. If there are any defects in the practical implementation of the philosophy then can be rectified, but if there are fundamental defects in the philosophy itself, the philosophy can never be implemerited, nor can it be rectified.
The theories of Marx and Gandhi are examples of defective philosophies. The fundamental principles of Marxism are unpsychological, irrational and anti-human. Marxists say that revolution is the only solution to capitalist exploitation. This is a positive idea. But the concepts of dialectical materialism, the materialist conception of history, the withering away of the state, proletariat dictatorship, classless society, etc., are defective ideas which can never be implemented. That is why the post-revolutionary stage in every communist country has suffered from turmoil and oppression. There is not a single country in the world which is established according to Marxist ideals.
Gandhism is also defective. Instead of guaranteeing liberation from exploitation, it favours the interests of the exploiters, hence it is a negative philosophy. Liberation from exploitation is impossible when the exploiters themselves find shelter in the philosophy. The co-existence of the exploiters and the exploited can never lead to a society free from exploitation. No revolutionary organization can accept Gandhism as an ideal philosophy. If any organization does, then it will no longer be a revolutionary organization, and it will break apart within a short time. This is an historical inevitability. Thus, the revolutionary organization must adopt a positive philosophy which is without defects.
Revolutionary cadres. Before the revolutionary organization gives the clarion call for revolution, there must be intensive preparation. In spite of the presence of all the conditions for revolution, revolution may not take place unless the exploited masses are psychologically prepared for revolution. If the people do not support revolution, the clarion call for revolution will not be heeded. Ideologically educated revolutionary workers will have to channelize the psychology of the common mass towards revolution and inspire them to undertake revolutionary strugle! Such workers must adopt a rational approach inspired by the positive philosophy, have a well-developed socio-economico-political consciousness, and be dedicated to uplifting the standard of the common people. The duty of these workers is to inspire the frustrated masses along the path of revolution. Through their dedication and dynamism, they will be able to bring the collective psychology in their favour. The first and foremost duty of the revolutionary organization is to create dedicated workers.
Infallible leadership. The success of the revolution depends on the leadership. Loss of life and property will be minimized to the extent to which the leadership is free from defects. Ideal leadership is the wealth of the society as well as of the revolution. It will not only lead to a successful revolution, but will also fulfil the hopes and aspirations of the people in the post-revolutionary phase of society.
In many countries a well-knit and prosperous society could not be built in the post-revolutionary phase due to the defective leadership. Concepts such as Plato’s philosopher king, Confucius’ sage, Nietzsche’s superman, Marx’s proletariat dictatorship, etc., were prepounded to develop ideal leadership, but all these concepts have failed. There is a vast difference between a theory of leadership and the practical, human qualities of a leader. Due to intelligence, acumen, social awareness, oratory skill and some other qualities, a few leaders were successful in the instigating revolution, but later on they became the objects of slander because they were unable to guide society along the path of real progress. They were unable to solve the pressing problems confronting the people or eradicate exploitation.
Sadvipra leadership is the ideal form of leadership. Such leaders will be physically fit, mentally developed and spiritually elevated. With their help and guidance, revolution will be materialized.
Revolutionary strategy. The forces opposed revolution possess immense military power. In spite of it, the revolutionaries achieve victory. This victory is due not only to a well-knit organization, progressive ideology and exemplary leadership, but also to revolutionary strategy.
Leadership is not imposed from above, rather it establishes itself through dedication, sincerity, ideological zeal, fighting spirit and all-round capacity. Leaders gradually acquire such capabilities – step by step.
A common base of integrity and unity amongst the exploited members of society will have to be established. This is essential because at the time of revolution there will be an all-out fight against antisocial activities and corruption. The revolutionaries will have to fight against three forces – outside exploiters, internal exploiters and other inner evil forces. All these three forces are powerful. Yet the moral, psychic and spiritual strength of the revolutionaries will be the cause of their victory, because physical weapons are not the only source of power. Moral and spiritual power is infinitely stronger than physical force.
Although the primary duty of the revolutionaries is to drive out the exploiters, they also have to ensure that these exploiters do not get new opportunities to capture power or undermine society in the future. The greatest achievement of a revolution is to eradicate exploitation and bring about a progressive change in the collective psychology through the minimum loss of life and property.”
“According to PROUT, in the first phase of agrarian revolution private ownership of land within the cooperative system will be recognized. People should have the right to employ labour for cultivation, but in such cases fifty percent of the total produce should be distributed as wages to the agricultural labourers who work in the cooperative. That is, the owners of the land will get fifty percent of the total produce and those who create the produce through their labour will get the other fifty percent. This ratio must never decrease – rather it should increase in favour of the agricultural labourers who work in the cooperative.
The managerial staff body of the cooperative should only be constituted from among those who have shares in the cooperative. They will be elected. Their positions should not be honorary because that creates scope for corruption. Managers will have to be paid salaries according to the extent of their intellectual expertise. In addition, the members of the cooperative may also employ their manual labour if they so desire, and for this they should be paid separate wages. Thus, cooperative members can earn dividends in two ways – as a return on the land given to the cooperative and on the basis of their productive labour. For this, the total produce of the cooperative should be divided into equal parts – that is, fifty percent on wages for labour, and fifty percent for the shareholders of the land.” (Agrarian Revolution)
“While implementing PROUT, the question of agrarian revolution will automatically arise. As I have already said, agricultural land should be brought under cooperative management, but the cooperative system should be introduced in two stages. In the first phase of the socialization of land, PROUT will not raise the demand for land ceilings, but the sale of agricultural land will be prohibited and uneconomic landholdings will be brought under cooperative management. The responsibility for cultivating this land will not lie with the landowners but with the cooperatives under the aegis of the immediate government, and with its assistance.
The landowners of the uneconomic landholdings in each village will become the members of the cooperatives in this phase. Thus, cooperatives will only consist of those who merged their land together to make uneconomic landholdings economic. The landowners will give their land, and in this phase they will remain the owners of the land. In cases where the landowners employ labour for cultivation, fifty percent of the net profit will go to the landowners and fifty percent to the labourers who work in the cooperatives.
In this phase, the rivers and streams in a village should be harnessed for the collective welfare. For instance, by constructing embankments and small dams on the rivers, large-scale irrigation, electricity generation, and industries based on local needs should be established.
The first steps must also be taken to alleviate the population pressure on land. An increasing percent of the rural population will have to be employed in industry by establishing agrico-industries and agro-industries. There should be provision for the preservation of crops by building stores and cold-stores under the control of local administrative boards. The cooperatives should be supplied with tractors, manure, seeds, water pumps and other farming equipment through producers cooperatives. Consumers cooperatives will supply the commodities necessary for daily consumption to the rural population.
In the very first phase of establishing cooperatives, agricultural labourers, landless labourers, day labourers and sharecroppers will come within the scope of cooperatives. From this phase, the education system in rural areas should be thoroughly reformed. To arouse the cooperative spirit among the people, there should be extensive training and education, but moral education must take precedence over everything else so that people do not give greater importance to individual interests at the expense of the collective interest.
In the second phase of implementing agricultural cooperatives, the economic holdings of the landowners should be brought under cooperative management. Only after all the uneconomic holdings in a village are brought within the scope of cooperatives should the economic holdings be brought under cooperative management. In this phase it will be easy to apply science and technology extensively in agriculture, increasing the amount of production.
In this second phase, all should be encouraged to join the cooperative system. The net profit will be increased in favour of the labourers working in the cooperatives so that twenty-five percent of the net profit will go to the landowners and seventy-five percent to the labourers. Here labourers means those who employ either their physical or psychic labour in the cooperative. The landowners will benefit in two ways. First, as landowners, they will get twenty-five percent of the net profit of the produce from the land, and secondly, if they are part of the cooperative labour force, they will be entitled to a portion of the seventy-five percent of the profit distributed among the cooperative members.
In this phase, there must be emphasis on the rapid and large- scale establishment of agrico-industries and agro-industries so that the rural population will be dependent more on industry than on agriculture. With the development of such industries, there should be simultaneous emphasis on educational and cultural reforms to further develop the cooperative mentality of the rural population.
From this second phase, production for consumption will increase the standard of living of the rural population, and the basic criteria of social security – that is, the minimum requirements of life – must be arranged for the people.
In the third phase, there should be rational distribution of land and redetermination of ownership. The rational distribution of land will depend on two factors – the minimum holding of land necessary to maintain a family, and the capacity of the farmer to utilize the land. In this phase, the landowners will not be able to employ individual labourers, landless labourers or sharecroppers for the cultivation of land, so it will be more beneficial for them to participate fully in the cooperative system.
In this phase, it will be easy to establish big cooperatives with the extensive application of science, but these cooperatives will not be anything like the huge collective farms of the Soviet Union or China. If cooperatives are allowed to become extremely large, it will be difficult to utilize natural resources efficiently and this will lead to complications in the sphere of production. One of the main defects of the collective farms in socialist countries is their unmanageable size.
In PROUT, the farmers cooperatives themselves will determine the size of the cooperatives. But while building up the cooperative system, two factors should be kept in mind – first, the high quantity and quality of production should be ensured through the application of science and technology while keeping production costs at a minimum; and secondly, the cooperative members must be encouraged to attain maximum psychic and spiritual development at their highest level in exchange for their minimum physical labour.
In the third phase of implementing the cooperative system, one hundred percent of the net profit will be distributed among the cooperative members. The former landowners will identify fully with the cooperatives in this phase.
Through these three phases it will be possible to reduce the excessive population pressure on land and to engage thirty to forty-five percent of the population in agriculture. In the second phase, the problem of unemployment will be tackled through the large-scale establishment of industry, and by the third phase there will be no unemployment problems for the agricultural labourers. By the end of the third phase, the rural sector will be freed from the vexing problems of agricultural and industrial production, unemployment and social security.
In the fourth phase of implementing the cooperative system, there will be no conflict over the ownership of land. The agrarian problems of every village will be solved. All the social security arrangements concerned with food, clothing, housing, education and medical treatment will be easily provided to the people. In this phase it will be possible to make the maximum utilization of the collective physical, psychic and spiritual wealth of every village.
For the total implementation of the cooperative system, there must be proper psychic preparation through internal urge and external pressure, adjusting with the time factor, because people will never accept a system which is forcibly imposed on them. Such a change in the collective psychology will not occur overnight, but will depend on the sentiment of the people.
The time period from the first phase to the fourth phase of the implementation of the cooperative system can be called the transitional period for the implementation of PROUT.” (Farmers Cooperatives)
“There is ample scope for agricultural development and industrial revolution in India. India suffers economic hardships today because its economic potential has not been properly harnessed.
There are two fundamental economic issues in India. First, the agricultural potentiality of the country must be developed by reducing the percentage of the population working in agriculture. Secondly, the excessively high percentage of the population dependent on agriculture must be reduced by developing industries.” (Agrarian Revolution)
“In Bengal some districts are highly developed whereas other districts are backward. The economic structure is not properly balanced, and due to this people suffer. For example, Calcutta, Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan and 24 Parganas are industrially developed, but the neighbouring districts of Midnapore, Bankura, Birbhum and Murshidabad are backward. So you must try to bring about an industrial revolution in the country. Just as there was a French Revolution, there should be an industrial revolution in Bengal.
For this industrial revolution we must not depend upon raw materials from foreign countries. Remember that no country should depend on imported raw materials for development. Indigenous raw materials, that is, materials available within the country itself, must be used for this purpose. Those who love society – those who love the people of their country and are keen to bring about their socio-economic elevation – must think in terms of an industrial revolution based on the raw materials available in their own socio-economic unit.
The districts of North Bengal – Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling and West Dinajpur – can produce and supply enough raw materials for industrial development. We must utilize the available raw materials. For example, Coochbehar district can supply jute and tobacco; Jalpaiguri district can supply pineapple fibres; and western Jalpaiguri district can supply jute fibres. Malda district can supply mango; textiles; silk; rice bran for producing edible rice bran oil; and jute and maize which can be used to make paper. The Malda silk industry can successfully compete with Chinese and Japanese silk, but unfortunately Malda, which has so much industrial potential, is the third poorest district in Bengal.
These things should be done, and they should be done in a short span of time. No industry in Bengal should depend on raw materials imported from outside.
You should bring about this revolution. You should collectively chalk out plans and programmes and demand such a change, such a revolution. Do not delay.” (Principles of Balanced Economy)
“Today there is an urgent need for an all-round spiritual revolution in individual and collective life under the leadership of a group of accomplished and idealistic leaders. These leaders should be endowed with spiritual power, and their ideology should be based on the solid rock of spirituality. Such highly qualified leaders are called sadvipras. They will ensure social progress in all countries in all ages.
All genuine spiritualists will have to adjust with the level of the dusty earth inspired by the spontaneous love of their hearts. They will have to share the wealth of their developed intellects with others to lighten the sorrows and sufferings of humanity. Through their guidance and leadership, human thinking will take a new turn and move along an entirely new path. The latent spiritual power in human beings will be awakened. Through their effort and inspiration, the new people of a new generation will be armed with a bold new optimism and vision of the future, and march forward triumphantly.” (Capitalism in Three Spheres)
(1) The word “viplava” means “revolt, tumult, affray, destruction, unorthodox interpreatation of the scriptures, terrifying an enemy by shouts, spreading far and wide, destruction, confusion, calamity, misery, distress.” The prefix ‘vi” has several meanings such as “apart, without” but in this case this prefix serves to mean “intense”. The second part of the word “plava” means “flood, swelling of a river, floating, swimming, enemy, prolonged utterance of a vowel (pluta), enemy, sloping towards, inclined towards, returning, urging on”. This comes from the verb “plu” meaning “to float, sway, soar, fly, blow, swim, bathe, leap, spring onto, submerge, overwhelm, to supply abundantly, to wash away, to purify.” Thus we can see that just like a vast flood submerges everything and brings up all the dirt and washes everything clean and floats everything upon its waters – so similarly a revolution does the same not just to a society but to its collective mind. In the past this flooding of the collective mind would take place after extreme torture and hence the collective mind would be filled with waves of hatred, rage, vengeance which has led of mass violence and chaos. This has led people to have great fear of the idea of a revolution.
However the nuclear revolution of the sadvipra is rooted in a moral revolution which does not simply involve learning and mechanically carrying out various commandments but instead is a form of sadhana or spiritual realisation leading to inner sublimation of one’s mind and its illumination by cardinal human values of justice, equality, sacrifice, etc.. As a result such a revolution is not goaded by the idea of destroying property, looting and killing. As seen above the word “plava” also refers to the prolonged utterance of a vowel or pluta. Shrii Sarkar explains how this bliss that one feels when one sings and prolongs the utterance of a vowel in singing spiritual songs is related to exalted states of mind saying,
“When people utter something and when that utterance keeps adjustment with the collective acoustic flow in the ethereal void, that sound is called pluta [prolonged sound]. In the Sanskrit language there is the system of pluta sound, but this is absent in Bengali and the rest of the world’s languages. If I use a short pronunciation I will say agni-miilre; if a long pronunciation, I will say agni-mii-i-lre; if a prolonged pronunciation, I will say agni-mii-i-i-lre…Anyway, when one’s psychology conforms to the one vast flow, one eternal flow, of bliss, flowing from beginninglessness to endlessness, wherein every entity is inundated, saturated and drenched with bliss – when I am identifying my psychology with that flow – this psychology resembles the psychology of the prolonged phonetic sound, and is called prapatti.” (Krśńa and Prapattiváda – 2)
Prapatti is the attainment of surrender to the Lord by the continous realisation of how His will (connation) is responsible for every event in the cosmos and the realization that He is in fact the ominfarious One – the One who performs all actions in this universe. In essence it is the mind of the sadvipra that keeps being flooded with divine bliss that is the root of all nuclear revolutions. This bliss keeps flooding because as a true gopi, the sadvipra is dedicated to giving the Supreme Beloved (in the core of our hearts) more and more bliss. And the ultimate goal of a sadvipra by endless fighting and vanquishing all forms of exploitation, discrimination and injustice by evolution and revolution is to create a revolution in the heart of the Supreme Beloved.
2) Now many see the way in which elite nations are able to manufacture colour revolutions in Europe and Spring revolutions in the Middle East and wonder if that is what Sadvipras will do. In fact such revolutions are not genuine revolutions because they simply involve the western powers removing one puppet with another puppet through media campaigns and other forms of propaganda, bribery and violence. The aim of sadvipra is never to simply remove someone or a particular varna (psychological class) from power. The aim is always to give birth to a new civilisation in the society and the collective mind. Sadvipras will aim to create endless revolutions in every intellectual, cultural, economic, political, agricultural field. The collective mind must be strengthened, made more subtle (by developing higher layers of the collective mind) and must established NeoHumanism or humanism rooted in realising, loving and uniting with Supreme Beloved in endlessly diverse activities, thoughts, sentiments, intuitions and samadhis. It is for this purpose that the PROUT economy was created, it is for this purpose that the NeoHumanistic mission of eradicating all baneful, narrow sentiments was created and it was for this purpose that Prout mission of uniting all moralists to the world to annihilate all forms of oppression was launched. Many feel that in the struggle to establish a sadvipra society that is the nuclear revolution. They could not be more wrong. It is when sadvipra society is established that the true mission of Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar will be established – to inundate, flood this planet with devotion. That will be the real revolution we will work our heart out for, endure endless tortures for and sacrifice our lives for – the revolution of limitless, omnipotent tenderness for each and every expression (creation) of the Supreme Beloved – the Soul of our souls.
3) Many today can only think of national revolutions. However as societies are blending due to mass migration, mass communication and the spread of cosmopolitanism, a sadvipra revolution is bound to spread rapidly. One example was the revolutions of 1848 where due to shared ideals, shared culture, revolutions spread across many nations of Europe with differing languages and political systems. Such a constellation of revolutions is bound to lead to a world revolution. This is not simply the dreary revolution of exploited workers but rather an explosion of human creativity, service, wisdom, sacrifice, enlightenment that will create one human family (Ananda Parivara) on this planet and other planets. Hence we are in a crucial time in history. As Shrii Sarkar enjoined us,
“History moves in rhythmic waves – in a systaltic flow. It moves and moves, then there is a galloping jump. Again it moves and moves again, then there is another galloping jump, and so on. All of a sudden there are galloping jumps – epoch-making eras. We are now at the threshold of this jump. We are not only at the threshold, we have just crossed the threshold of a new era. We are now at the threshold of something new – of the new age – and we are now passing through such an age. Do you realize it? We are no more at the threshold. You should be ready for great changes… Along with this acceleration or retardation, there is a galloping jump. Before and after this jump, there is biological change, historical change, agricultural change and human psychic change.” (The Coming Ice Age)
Such a revolution will not just encompass human beings but rather in the entire creation. In a declaration we can only marvel at in wonder, Shrii Sarkar revealed,
“So in this phase of introversial movement, when crude physicality is being transmuted into psychic, we can expect that the day is sure to come when the whole world will move from the subtle psychic realm and cross the threshold of the still more subtle spiritual world. And that day when the entire living world – dashing through a transitory phase of psychic – will become spiritual will not be in the distant future.” (Biological Transformation Associated with Psychic Metamorphosis and Vice Versa)
5-5. Shaktisampátena vipariitadháráyáḿ vikrántih.
[Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called “counter-evolution”.]
shakti = force; sampátena (3rd case) = through application; vipariita = opposite; dháráyáḿ (7th case) = in the flow; vikrántih = counter-evolution
Purport: If any age reverts to the preceding one by the application of force, such a change is called vikránti [“counter-evolution”]. For instance, the establishment of the Kśatriya Age after the Vipra Age is counter-evolution. This counter-evolution is extremely short-lived. That is, within a very short time this age is again replaced by the next age or the one after it. In other words, if the Kśatriya Age suddenly supersedes the Vipra Age through counter-evolution, then the Kśatriya Age will not last long. Within a short time either the Vipra Age, or as a natural concomitant the Vaeshya Age, will follow.
“If any age reverts to the preceding one by the application of force – that is, if the Vaeshya Age reverts to the Vipra Age or the Vipra Age reverts to the Kśatriya Age – we can call this vikránti [counter-evolution].” (Problems of the Day)
“The efforts of intelligent vipras or brave kśatriyas to escape from the influence of the vaeshyas can be called the vikránti [counter-evolution] or the prativiplava [counter-revolution] of the vipras or kśatriyas.” (The Vipra Age)
“However, the vaeshyas’ cunning methods of economic exploitation do encounter set-backs according to time, place and person. Whenever they see the vipras, kśatriyas and shúdras moving towards counter-evolution or counter-revolution, they adopt new forms of deception in order to save their position. Until an actual shúdra revolution occurs, they engage themselves untiringly in trying to discover newer and more artful methods of deception.” (The Vaeshya Age)
“A mind, driven by many psychic pabula is the prisoner of innumerable predicaments. In such a condition the human mind becomes extroversial, multi-directional, weak and static. It is propelled by the principle of selfish pleasure, which leads it down the path of counter-evolution. It always adopts an analytical approach to life, never a synthetic one. As people have to satisfy their unrestrained psychic pabula with limited objects of wealth, they often create interpersonal and inter-group conflicts. The collective psychology arising from many objectified human minds gives rise to social inequality, economic exploitation, political repression, religious bigotry, cultural perversion and the all-round degradation of the individual and society. Crude psychic pabula cause the degeneration of individual and collective mind, and thus bring about the downfall of the society.
So psychic urges must not be objectified nor should they be suppressed; rather they must be channelized towards the Supreme Desideratum through the proper psycho-spiritual approach. The Supreme Entity is always one – there is no room for duality in infinity. In the psycho-spiritual approach the goal of psychic urges is always singular. With constant spiritual practice, the mind, with its thousand propensities, becomes one-pointed and is goaded towards the Supreme Singular Entity. At this stage of advanced psycho-spiritual attainment, all the psychic urges with the many psychic pabula are channelled and converted into one psycho-spiritual pabulum – Cosmic Consciousness.” (The Transformation of Psychic Pabula into Psycho-spiritual Pabulum)
“Sometimes the social cycle (samája cakra) is reversed by the application of physical or psychic force by a group of people inspired by a negative theory. Such a change is, therefore, counter-evolution – that is, against the cycle of civilization. This may be termed vikránti.” (The Place of Sadvipras in the Samája Cakra)
1) Counter-evolution happens when the elites in power are disturbed by the evolution of society and launch a counter movement to seize power and change the collective psychology. For example in the 1960s and 1970s in America and Europe there was a dramatic evolutionary change in the society. Racism was coming under attack in the US by the civil rights movement and when the leaders turned to attack economic racial exploitation they were murdered. This slowed down the pace of change. The dominant culture at that time was shudra. Then the conservative movement began extensive media propaganda and took action to stop radical protests. The result was in radical conservative governments being elected. These governments dismantled the social welfare government created after the Great Depression and the Second World War. In addition the culture moved to a new form of vaeshya culture and vaeshyan values become popular again.
2) Another form of counter-evolution happens when a religion loses its hold over the country and then fights to regain control. The rise of the Protestant Reformation led to the rise of early forms of capitalism and the decline of the rule of the Catholic Church. As a result the church launched the Counter-Reformation which was a cultural and political movement to use the arts and government to shift the psychology back to bring back the basic mindset and culture of the past. It was successful in several countries.
In modern times the major world religions of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism were severely attacked and weakened both by the rise of capitalist consumer materialism and the rise of Marxism. When Marxism fell as an ideology and an ideological vacuum was created, then religious extremists launched cultural and military attacks to gain power in many countries. They were also very successful in changing the collective psychology in many because the anti-capitalists had no other hope. Former Marxists have joined fundamentalist Christianity and fundamentalist Islam. This counter evolution has been progressing quite rapidly in recent times.
1) Another form of counter-evolution arises when strong ksattriya or military rulers revolt against the rise of various religious powers. Countless kings have rebelled against the rise of Christian, Islamic, Hindu (Puranic) and Buddhist controlled rulers. When these kings are weak this rebellion was often slow as they waited to build power.
4) Another form of counter evolution arises when shudras protest against the imposition of ksatriya military rule. For example the counter-revolution against the Communists by the shudra peasants and anarchists was brutally crushed at the end of the Russian Civil War. However, understanding the mood of the people after the killing and famine of the war, the communists were forced to backtrack and introduce the NEP (New Economic Programme) which limited centralised control over the economy and gave economic freedom to farmers and craftsmen. This counter evolution ended when Stalin got power and imposed collectivisation by force.
5-6. Tiivrashaktisampátena vipariitadháráyaḿ prativiplavah.
[Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “counter-revolution”.]
tiivra = tremendous; shakti = force; sampátena (3rd case) = through application; vipariita = opposite; dháráyáḿ (7th case) = in the flow; prativiplavah = counter-revolution
Purport: Likewise, if within a very short time the social cycle is turned backwards by the application of tremendous force, such a change is called prativiplava [“counter-revolution”]. Counter-revolution is even more short-lived than counter-evolution.
“Once the common people had become part of the social system created by the vipras, if it became apparent that a king wanted to free himself from the vipras’ domination, the vipras would use their intellectual power to summon up the support of the masses and, after humbling the proud king, would install a new king on the throne. Thereby the vipras secured their own rule.
The efforts of aware kśatriyas to free themselves from the influence of the vipras can be called kśatriya vikránti [counter-evolution] or kśatriya prativiplava [counter-revolution].” (The Kśatriya Age)
“But if this reversal of the social cycle takes place, due to political pressure or any other brute force, within a short span of time, the change thus brought about is prativiplava, or “counter-revolution”.” (The Place of Sadvipras in the Samája Cakra)
“A careful study of the social history of the world will reveal that until now every attempt at prativiplava [counter-revolution] has not only caused enormous psychic and financial suffering and plunged humanity into the mire of gloom and despair, but has also lengthened the period of social contraction. This in turn, in the next phase, has helped to accelerate the speed of the period of social expansion – has inspired the chariot of revolution to advance towards victory with greater momentum.” (Moralism)
“counter-revolution. It is just like the negative pratisaiṋcara of Brahma Cakra.(3) Thus the progress and march of civilization can be represented as points of position and as the speed of approaching Puruśottama (Macrocosmic Nucleus), respectively, by a collective body in Brahma Cakra.
The world is a transitory phase or changing phenomenon within the scope of the Cosmic Mind. It is going in eternal motion, and such a motion is the law of nature and the law of life. Stagnancy means death. Hence no power can check the social cycle of evolution. Any force, external or internal, can only retard or accelerate the speed of transition, but cannot prevent it from moving. Therefore progressive humanity should cast off all skeletons of the past. Human beings should go on accelerating the speed of progress for the good of humanity in general.” (The Place of Sadvipras in the Samája Cakra)
1) The most common form of counter revolution is when a revolution is overthrown by force and the old varna comes back into power. In 1848 there were revolutions across Europe that swept out the rule of the vipras or the aristocracy and monarchy. These revolutions were defeated by counter-revolutions that brought the old rulers back into power. Similarly in Spain in the 19th century there were several counter-revolutions by defeated monarchists to overthrow revolutionary governments that had set up a capitalist republic. These counter revolutions were supported by the Catholic Church. In the case of the German Revolution of 1918-9 it was the police working with former ruling politician and the army who launched a counter revolution that threw out the communist government from power.
2) Another form of counter revolution is when a foreign power sponsors defeated leaders to try and overthrow the revolution. For example the United States sponsored defeated Cuban (in the 1960s) and Nicaraguan elites (in the 1980s) to try to overthrow revolutionary governments in these countries by military coups. Similarly during the French Revolution, Britain, Austria and other monarchies launched armies to overthrow the revolutionary government.
3) Some counter-revolutions do not initially succeed but instead result in bloody civil wars. In Spain in the 1930s after there was a workers’ revolution of Anarchists, communists and liberals that was supported by Soviet Russia. In response the Nazis, Italian Fascists, British and Americans supported the conservative fascists (supported by the Catholic Church) to launch a counter revolution. The result was a very bloody civil war that was won by the fascists. Similarly in Russia the western foreign powers launched a counter-revolution resulting in a terrible civil war that was however won by the communists – i.e. a failed counter-revolution.
4) Sometimes a counter-revolution is launched by an imperialist power when they do not like the new ruling party. The UK and USA had supported the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt to undermine the Arab nationalism of Nasser. When Mubarak was becoming more hostile to Israel and less complaint to the US, special teams of Egyptian activists were taken the US and trained in propaganda. Thereafter the Arab Spring uprising was launched in Egypt. It was planned that Mohammad Al-Baradei would become Prime Minister. However, the Muslim Brotherhood was also given support by foreign powers when it proved to be more popular. The revolution threw Mubarak out of power. Mubarak’s rule was a ksattriya rule like Pakistan. However the Muslim Brotherhood won the elections after he was overthrown. Then the Muslim Brotherhood started creating a new constitution that would Islamize the country and give it large power without consulting the people. The Muslim Brotherhood had the support of many intellectuals and also the business class to some extent but they did not expect this kind of forced Islamisation. Then Israel and the US backed army leader Sisi (having a Jewish background as per rumour) to take advantage of public anger about the new constitution and re-establish military rule.
5) Another form of counter-revolution is when after shudra revolution, the military ksattriyas start to take control violently, and so the shudras fight for freedom. In Russia during the Civil War (between the Communists Tsarists and Communists), the Anarchists (Black colour uniform) and the Greens (peasant armies) fought against the communists who were forced to use poison gas. Similarly in Spain, the communists murdered peasant organisations and anarchists in order to try to establish military rule. However in the end the communists themselves were defeated by the fascists.
5-7. Púrńávartanena parikrántih.
[A complete rotation of the social cycle is called “peripheric evolution”.]
púrńa = full; ávartanena (3rd case) = with the rotation or turning; parikrántih = completion of cyclic movement
Purport: One complete rotation of the social cycle, concluding with shúdra revolution, is called parikránti [“peripheric evolution”].
“And we can call one full rotation of the social cycle – that is, from one shúdra revolution to the next shúdra revolution – parikránti.” (Problems of the Day)
“An examination of history reveals that the cáturvarńika (four-fold varna) social system existed throughout the world and that it has continued and is still continuing according to a special type of parikránti [peripheric evolution] of the samája cakra [social cycle].” (The Kśatriya Age)
1) The “ávarta” means “to revolve, to rotate”. However it also means “to whirl, whirpool, a crowded place.” In this sense the social cycle has been whirling and society has been churned and both poisonous and nectarean events, ideas and personalities have emerged. This churning, this revolving attains fullness and completeness with Shudra Revolution. Revolution originally meant the full turning (revolving) in a circle where one comes back to the place from which one started. Other revolutions are there at different stages of the social cycle but they all culminate in the great worker revolution. Thus this is the “purna” or complete, total revolution
2) Baba says that “The prefix pari is used to indicate ‘having attained completeness’ or ‘filled to the brim’.” Now “kranti” as we have seen means evolution. So the completion, fulfilment and perfection of evolution of the social cycle lies in shudra revolution.
3) It is important to note that shudra revolution does not mean going back to the past and living like in the prehistoric past. When shudras have come to power in communist shudra revolutions they have increasingly showed greater sense of awareness and responsibility. They have also shown some realisation of how they have come back to the era of the prehistoric past when shudras ruled. Unfortunately these shudras were misled and promised a shudra socialist paradise that never came under ksatriya military rule. It is important that shudras be educated and understand about how history repeats itself in the social cycle. This will cause social awakening
4) In individual life we see people go through various emotional or psychological cycles of behaviour. However they are unconscious of how they are trapped in certain cycles of behaviour. As a result they cannot know themselves and they cannot know the people and the place where they live. The poet T. S. Eliot said in the poem Little Gidding, “We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time.” When the collective psychology of a civilisation becomes conscious of how it is going through various stages of being dominated by various colours and passions, then this self-knowledge opens the door to collective self-enlightenment of that society. They will learn to know their homeland and the beings within it and learn how to move in unison with everyone as a true society.
5) This is possible through living in society as part of a collective sadhana and a collective spiritual seva (service). The practical result is that the collective psychology will be more subtle and less influenced by the varnas. This will result not in a collective cycle but a spiralling circle as the collective psychology evolves towards merger with the Cosmic Mind. This becomes a reality when the collective mind of a civilisation becomes able to perform the collective Varńárghyadána (the offering of colours/varnas) or Guru Puja.
6) When one has surrendered the colours of one’s mind unto the Supreme Subjectivity or Supreme Soul then one begins the path of prema or divine love. Until now human civilisation has been based on kama – the pursuit of physical desires rooted in fear. When there is genuine Parikranti with a sadvipra society, then a new humanity and a new collective psychology based on prema will emerge. This is why the propounder of PROUT said in Jail that Sadvipra Samaja was only a fraction of His real purpose and His real mission was to inundate or flood the world with devotion (bhakti). Thus through being churned in the social cycle a civilisation develops self-awareness and self-surrender of all inner desires and their colours (varnas). As Baba said in discussing the stages of NeoHumanism, “Humanity as a whole will become converted into a powerful spiritual force… All other ástras [weapons] will become completely powerless before this Brahmastra [mightiest spiritual weapon].” This will render inevitable not just the liberation of humanity but the realisation of its destiny of ultimate union with the love of the Supreme Beloved in the heart of its heart. This is the real Parikranti.