“Humans are social beings, but their intellectual level is much higher than that of all other creatures. Although they have a greater degree of intellect, they still possess inborn instincts and sentimentality like other creatures, and their sentimentality is of varying degrees. But the greatest human treasure, which animals do not possess, is a logical mind.
Now, the sentimentalized collective life – groupified life, groupism, demi-social mentality(1) – develops because humans have sentimentality like other beings, and also have logical mentality, rationalistic psychology, so between the two a conflict may arise – even within the same individual. Sometimes rationalistic mentality is victorious, sometimes sentimentality.
With the development of intellect, inborn instincts gradually wane…
Now, within the stage of sentimentality, as mentioned previously, living beings become divided into two categories, one gregarious, or collective, and the other solitary. The collective tendency of human beings remains intact as long as they are within the scope of sentimentality, but that kind of collectivity, that groupism, that group feeling, that demi-social mentality, is goaded by sentimentality.
But when logic develops, the scope of sentimentality wanes and contracts. Wherever groupism exists, sentimentality also exists.” (Living Beings and Their Mentality)
“According to PROUT, changes take place in a cyclic order. In some era of the past the toiling masses were dominant. At that time there was no human society or civilization, and even the concept of the family was almost non-existent. Such a period was called the Shúdra era. After this Shúdra era came the Kśatriya era, or the age of the warriors. As a result of clash and cohesion, the dawn of the Vipra era became discernible on the horizon of the social cycle. When the warriors, those with Herculean strength, started ignoring and hurting the sentiments of the Vipras or intellectuals, the Vipras evolved an antithesis against the thesis of the Kśatriya era out of vindictiveness and revenge. But the saga of exploitation and suffering knew no end. When the Vipras started an offensive against the bourgeois class, the dissatisfied and disgruntled bourgeoisie launched a crusade against the thesis of the Vipra age. When the once disgruntled classes began to engage in exploitation, profiteering and black marketeering, thriving off the life blood of others, then the exploited, oppressed and rebellious people started a bloody revolution for the destruction of the bourgeois class.” (Dialectical Materialism and Democracy)
“The four types of psychology dominate the social cycle in cyclic progression. Towards the end of an era, the collective psychology undergoes marked deterioration. Moral degeneration and social retardation cause psycho-social stagnation. Exploitation becomes rampant. This sort of unhealthy situation signals the end of an era. The different classes try to usurp social power and establish their hegemony by trampling on the rights of others. This conflict has been discernible from the dawn of human civilization. Through this clash and cohesion, human beings try to find the path of emancipation.” (Nuclear Revolution)
“You know about vipra, kśatriya, vaeshya and shúdra. Vipra means an intellectual who helps the society with the help of his or her intellect, who teaches others, guides others; he or she is a vipra. A kśatriya protects the society, protects the weak. How? With his or her valour, with his or her strength. A kśatriya utilizes his or her strength and courage in protecting the society. And vaeshya means – ? [to a sádhaka] You – vaeshya means – ?
Vaeshya means producer, manufacturer. That is, agriculturists (a farmer is an agriculturist), factory labourers, technicians – they are all vaeshyas. And shúdra – the unskilled labourer, or one who does nothing, or wastes his or her time, or depends on others. They are all shúdras.
Now you see, so far as mental colour is concerned – according to the mental tendency, the mind has colour, and that colour is according to the wavelengths of thoughts. For a vipra it will be whitish, for a kśatriya reddish, for a vaeshya yellowish, and for a shúdra blackish. Black here means not the colour of the skin, not the complexion, you know, but the mental colour. Actually it concerns – what? Mental colours. And one may change one’s mental colour by dint of one’s sádhaná.
There are certain misunderstandings in India regarding these shúdras. Some people used to think that those non-Aryan people – Austrics, Mongoloids, and the Negroid population of India, Austrico-Negroid – that they were the shúdras because of their black skin. No, it’s not a matter of black skin, but of a black mind. The son of an intellectual may be a shúdra if he is mentally black. A person may be a vipra even if he or she is physically black.” (Twice Born)
“It should be kept in mind that words such as shúdra, kśatriya and vipra [as used in this book] have no connection with the varńáshrama (caste) system of ancient Hindu society. However, it is a fact that those who became vipras by virtue of their intellect declared that the vipras were a hereditary caste in order to perpetuate their own authority in society. They showed the kśatriyas, whom they had defeated and who had submitted to them, a little mercy by giving them a social position just under themselves. (Actually this was not done out of mercy but so they could put them to work in the future.)” (The Vipra Age)
“When the waves of the unit mind try to adjust to the rhythm of materialistic waves without attempting to assimilate them, the unit mind gradually becomes materialistic. [[If a person’s mind dwells on matter, that mind will naturally be filled with tamoguńii [static] darkness, and the person will be called a shúdra.]] Those who have a shúdra mentality can collectively be called the shúdra society. Needless to say, such people cannot control anything, because the crudest waves, the waves of matter, control them
When the human race was in an embryonic stage and humans evolved from animal mentality to human mentality, human beings then, as today, found two paths open to them. The first was to become crude by ideating on matter – the path of shúdra-hood; and the second was to overcome material and psychic obstacles by ideating on subtle things – the path of kśatriya-hood. In those days people’s minds were so full of material thoughts, due to living in a hostile natural environment, that at that early stage everyone necessarily possessed a shúdra mentality.
Due to mutual self-interest people developed social bonds, but they were unable to build a social structure, and society in those days basically meant only a particular individual’s own body, and the wife, to some extent sons and daughters, and close relatives that contributed to the pleasure of that body. As conjugal relations were based on gratification – on the enjoyer and the object of enjoyment – there was no sense of responsibility or humanity. Today there are shúdras with this propensity scattered throughout the world in all societies.
People with a shúdra mentality fall in the same category as all animals that have a strong desire for physical enjoyment. At that time the powerful men, who had a strong desire for physical enjoyment, were polygamous. When such men were defeated, they were either exiled, or killed by stronger men. The little art and literature that existed did not reflect developed sensibilities. It was merely the expression of the greediness of people given to materialistic enjoyment.
The people of that shúdra society felt some parental affection for their children due to their physical contact with them, but once their children grew up and clashes of interest typical of the shúdra mentality would come about, they would not maintain the relationship. So although parents had a temporary affection for their children, the children could have no sense of responsibility towards their parents or close relatives.
People had no sense of duty towards each other and no social order had evolved. People generally felt uneasy if they came too close to each other. In fact, the shúdra society of that time could not claim to be much better than the present-day society of monkeys or dogs.
Frankly stated, shúdras live only for physical enjoyment. They neither bother about ideology nor give any value to rationality. Of the three aspects of time – past, present and future – they think only about the present. They have neither the time nor the inclination to think about the past or the future. Religion, spirituality and a genuine social system have no significance for them. Whatever religion, spirituality or social order we observe in shúdra society results from an unholy alliance between their fearfulness and their self-interest.
Whether it is a natural calamity, or the gloomy night, or the joyful dawn, or a burning desert, they have always viewed and continue to view it either with the eyes of fear or with the eyes of escapism. This type of fear psychology elevates different natural phenomena in their eyes to the status of gods. They learn to worship trees, mountains, forests, seas, etc., as gods out of fear and a greater or lesser degree of self-interest, but not due to the inspiration of the indivisible Supreme Entity. We can thus conclude that the shúdra social order is based on fear alone.
The main sentiment in the shúdra social system is “Let the living live better, and let the dying die quickly. Don’t waste energy trying to save them.” An attitude such as this produces a particular type of selfish social system which, in reality, is neither a society nor a system. Only this much have the shúdras created and can they create.
The rudimental idea of shúdra society, like that of merciless nature, is survival of the fittest. Where there is no love and compassion for the weak, there will be no collective effort to preserve their lives. Children will take no responsibility for their elderly parents. So people will remain divided into innumerable groups and somehow pass their time; for them the joy of collective living – the expansiveness of many minds moving together – is nothing but a disquieting dream.
Shúdras are always sleeping. They can perform work only if someone wakes them up. Once the work is done, they go back to sleep. In order to maintain the cáturvarńika(four-fold) social system, some work will have to be taken from the shúdras. Consciousness should be developed among shúdras in order to protect them from the inhuman greed of the vaeshyas. (All non-vaeshyas slip into shúdra-hood on the eve of a shúdra revolution.) But is it possible to create genuine awareness in shúdras?” (The Kśatriya Age)
“The first human babes were born a million years ago but these human babes did not find this earth a safe place to live on. At that time nature was extremely cruel so they had to use all their powers to protect themselves against the harshness of nature. That age was called the Shúdra era or primitive society.
In that age of struggle or in that society only physical strength counted. In those days of yore the principle which reigned supreme was “might is right”. The new born babes found all other forces inimical to them and were not capable of fight ing against all of them alone. That is why they formed groups to struggle collectively. In the age of physical strength the strongest became the leader of the group. Thus, a Kśatriya or warrior predominant society was formed on the earth and the monarchy came into existence. The so-called Shúdra society was not a solid one.” (Compartmentalized Democracy)
“When human beings first appeared on earth, that was the Shúdra Age. Ráŕh was no exception. When the people of that age all began to feel that they should live collectively in order to fight against the obstacles and dangers of their adverse environment, they began to search for a chieftain. At the initial stage, a woman used to be the chieftain. Even though she may not have had to do anything, she served as a symbol of group-oriented living – just like a queen ant or a queen bee or a queen white ant. In this way there emerged the ancient matriarchal society. When, later on, it made way for the patriarchal society – when it became evident that a patriarchal society [patrilineal order] was necessary for determining the lineage of the children – males began to assume the roles of chieftains. These chieftains used to be called, in more polished language, rájás [kings].” (Ráŕh – 31)