“The most amusing part about it is that when the Kśatriya Age evolved out of the unsystematic Shúdra Age, the shúdras considered the Kśatriya Age a great blessing. The shúdras could not envisage the kśatriyas as exploiters or possible exploiters. Similarly, when the kśatriyas sold all their strength to the intellectual vipras, the kśatriyas did not realize that it had been sold and that they were gradually being bound in chains like slaves. Still later, when the vipras sold themselves to the money of the vaeshyas – when Sarasvatii [the goddess of knowledge] became the slave of Lakśmii [the goddess of wealth] – the vipras at first did not realize that their value was going to be measured in financial terms.” (The Vipra Age)
The universe and the society belong to all. Every dust particle of the universe is the common patrimony of each and every one of us, so it is not at all proper to allow a particular social class to perpetuate its rule. The peripheric evolution of the social cycle will continue, and along with this the fight of the sadvipras against the supremacy of each social class will also have to continue.
Society belongs to all, but its leadership will be in the hands of sadvipras. The responsibility for leading society cannot be left in the hands of the kśatriyas, because they will try to enforce kśatriya rule. They will exploit the non-kśatriyas and chew the bones and marrow of the weak. Nor can the responsibility for leading society be left in the hands of the vipras, because they will try to establish vipra rule. They will exploit the non-vipras and chew the bones and marrow of the non-intellectuals. Likewise, the responsibility for leading society cannot be left in the hands of the vaeshyas, because they will try to impose vaeshya rule. They will exploit the non-vaeshyas and chew the bones and marrow of the toiling mass. Shúdras cannot undertake the leadership of society. Hence the victory mark of the successful shúdra revolution indeed embellishes the forehead of the kśatriyas.
The responsibility for leading society can only be entrusted to the sadvipras because they are well established in Yama and Niyama – they are imbued with Cosmic ideation. The social cycle will surely rotate, and as a rule the dominance of the kśatriyas, vipras and vaeshyas will take place in succession. But if sadvipras control the nucleus of society, these social classes may attain some degree of prominence in social life, but they will never be able to become the absolute rulers. (Problems of the Day)
“Ananda Marga breaks all these classes, not by calling them bad, but by making all the members of Ananda Marga practise and develop the qualities of all these classes. For instance, the developed mind required by vipras is necessary for every member of Ananda Marga. Even if one is a shúdra or a vaeshya, or a member of any other class, every person, after joining the Marga, has to work to have a developed and strong mind. Every person has to work to build a strong and healthy body. Every person has to work for a living. This has been given so much importance in the Marga that it is laid down that the work of a sweeper – the lowest form of work – is far more respectable than depending upon others for one’s daily needs. Not only has earning money and having a balanced and dependable economic life been given importance, but even the lowest of all these classes, in whom people usually do not see any good, has been given equal importance. Every member of the Marga has to serve others physically. This is the work of the shúdras, or the workers. Followers of the Marga cannot develop themselves completely unless they can also perform this work efficiently. In short, all the requirements of the four classes have to be mastered by each individual in Ananda Marga.” (Ananda Marga – A Revolution)
“We can practise sádhaná by practising restraint in whichever situation we are placed. The only thing necessary for practising sádhaná is an ardent desire for it.
We should strengthen ourselves by remaining in normal situations and endeavouring to become superhuman. By developing superhuman powers we can awaken the element of eternal humanity amongst us. This eternal human entity alone is Brahma (Pure Consciousness). In order to attain this power, meanness must be shunned, because this is the sádhaná for the Infinite. Feelings of differentiation are a great impediment. The feelings that a particular person is a Muslim, another a Hindu, yet another a Brahman and the fourth a Vaeshya come from mean thoughts. When every living being is a manifestation of Brahma, how can you know yourself, without shedding these differentiating feelings? No one is high and no one is low. Of course, according to one’s virtues and vices, one is happy, one is miserable, one is rich, someone is poor, one is a fool and another is erudite, but all human beings. Differentiating feelings are the principal obstacles in the path of sádhaná and an elevated position cannot be attained without annihilating them.” (The Form of Sádhaná)
(1) The word Varńa has many meanings including “colour, outward appearance, form, shape, dye, pigment, beauty, covering, cloak, race, species, character, quality, property, tribe, caste, letter, vowel, musical sound/note, syllable, word, praise, renown, glory, expeller (someone who wards off someone or something).” It comes from the verb ‘vr’ meaning, “to cover, conceal, hide, surround, suppress, exclude, forbid, withhold”. This was a word introduced into India by the Aryan invaders whose religion and social outlook was significantly influenced by racism. Hence the primary meanings of the word are “colour, letter and caste”. The Aryan Vedic racial order had a four fold categories, firstly there were Brahmins (priests), ksatriyas (warriors) and vaeshyas (farmers, traders). Second there were the suppressed, excluded shudras (a word meaning slaves of a black complexion’) who were indigenous Indians (of the Dravidian, Austronesian and Oriental races) conquered and enslaved by the Aryans.
In the Tantric tradition of Lord Shiva, Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, the propounder of PROUT, fought against this pernicious system and took the samkalpa to eradicate it from Indian society. Instead in the tradition of Lord Krsna, the idea of Varna in PROUT is related to the colour of one’s mind and not the so-called caste of one’s family. In the Tantric tradition of Lord Shiva which later influenced the Upanishads and the Samkhya philosophy, there are three primordial cosmic principles – the sentient (sáttvika), mutative (rájasika) and the static (támasika). The sentient principle is white in colour and is the colour of the ideal vipra or intellectual. Most vipras however are not at this level of purity and can tend to have a green or even a black aura (due to hypocracy or arrogance). The mutative principle of active or passionate people is the colour red. The static principle of crude people with an undeveloped moral and social conscience is black in colour. The individual and collective human minds are dominated by a blend of these principles and hence have various mental colours at different times. So-called high castes may have a black colour due to active discrimination against other castes and so-called lower castes may have a white colour if they lead an honest, hardworking life combined with spirituality.
As a Tantric Preceptor, Shrii Sarkar peformed demonstrations wherein disciples were empowered to see the colours of people’s minds. They were also enabled to see how spiritual blessings of the Guru are able to dramatically change these colours. Above all disciples were blessed to realise how in fact all these colours were veils hiding the true nature of all beings as nought but the dazzling effulgence of Pure Consciousness. This is one reason why Shrii Sarkar said that in future diseases will be cured by the science of colour.
Shrii Sarkar also revealed the science of Yoga Psychology and explained how each cakra (psycho-spiritual plexus or centre along the spine) is associated with various propensities which are linked with letters and sounds of the alphabet – each having their own unique colour. The human mind has thus so many propensities and various refractions and projections of them and hence is a kalidescope of these colours. This is also the root of the science of ragas or scales/modes of Indian classical music. The word ‘raga’ also means colour. As explained in the quotations above the science of worldly and spiritual attraction are also based on colour although in the spiritual realm one experiences indescribable colours beyond compare with those found in this universe.
(2) The Sanskrit word ‘cakra’ means “cycle, wheel, holy diagram, device, whirlpool, potter’s wheel, discus weapon, astronomical or seasonal cycle, province, army.” It is derived from the verb “cara” meaning “to move, travel, pervade, act, treat, conduct oneself, to be engaged in.” Cakra is famous in English as referring to subtle energy centres located alone the spine through which the kundalini (primordial spiritual energy) moves as described above. The Sanskrit word “dhárá” means “flow, stream, current continuous line or series. So we are talking about the primary currents of the Cakra.
In PROUT, “cakra” refers usually to the samaja cakra or the social cycle comprising the movement from shudra society to ksatriya society to vipra society to vaeshya society to shudra revolution after which the cycle begins anew. However, cakra also refers to the cycle of these various psychologies that dominate the collective mind at different periods of history.
We should note that for the individual the mind’s primary control centre is the Ájiṋa Cakra (lunar plexus) which is located between the eyebrows and is associated with the pineal gland. This is part of the science of bio-psychology or yoga psychology. However, Shrii Sarkar has indicated that there is a similar bio-psychology of the collective mind as well.
Also we should note that as per Yoga psychology there are five layers (kośas) of the lower mind – the kamamaya (crude desiring mind), manomaya (subtle, rational mind), atimanasa (supramental mind), vijiṋánamaya (subliminal) and hiranyamaya (subtle causal mind). While the first two are well known the last three are less known and fully developed usually by spiritual practices. Together they are known as the Superconscious (unconscious) Mind. Each of these kośas is associated with one cakra and also has a range of colours. While these kośas are more developed in the individual mind, they are less developed or totally udeveloped in the collective mind of various societies. This is one of the reasons why the collective mind can develop mob psychology and also is vulnerable to mass propaganda by exploiters. Hence the spiritual development of these layers of mind in the individual and the community is crucial for the progress of humanity.
(4) With regard to shudra, ksatriya, vipra and vaeshya societies. Shudra societies are less known. We know of many prehistoric societies who lived as shudra socities. There are several indigenous tribal societies that are essentially shudra societies although some indigenous societies are quite advanced when it comes to maintaining peace, equality and brotherhood/sisterhood. We also are aware of how in history when civilisations declined, the rulers corrupted the people with gifts and crude/violent entertainment. This led to the rise of shudra psychology in the general population and to general social breakdown. A most famous example would be the later Roman Empire. Our dying capitalist societies today are another example of the dominance of shudra psychogy before shudra revolution.
(3) Pradhána means “dominant, foremost, predominant, main”. Now this sutra (sublime aphorism) is saying that in the collective mind, in the society one Varńa or colour or psychological type is dominant. In primitive society this is especially the case and in more mentally developed societies while one varna made be predominant, there may be traces of other varnas as well leading to a compound colour. It is not directly clear as to how the collective psychology of a community or civilisation develops such colours and such a unique psychological variety at a particular time in history. One possible explanation is that these colours and corresponding psychological types arise from the various goals of an individual or a community. In the Indian tradition there are four primary goals and movements – Káma, Artha, Dharma and Mokśa.
As per PROUT, Káma refers to various physical desires. Shudras or workers are attracted by this goal. In every society there arises the dream of finding a magical land where there is plenty of food, no sickness and even no old age or death. From this longing arose the idea of heaven. The primary mental characteristics (dharma are those of animals – fear, hunger, sleep and the reproductive urge. When a society is dominated by the pursuit of physical enjoyment then the collective mind tends to have a dark or black colour and is dominated by shudra psychology described above.
Artha normally means the desire for wealth, properity and the desire for understanding and for meaning. It is commonly used also for the science of economics or political economy. In PROUT, Artha is the temporary removal of physical, psychic (mental, emotional, intellectual, intuitional) and spiritual suffering. Spiritual longing here refers to the mystical yearning for the Supreme Beloved who is the Soul of our souls. Now Vaeshyas are obessed with not just having wealth but also in controlling the flow of wealth and in using wealth to control individuals and societies. When individuals and civilisations are dominated by movement towards ultimate prosperity, then the collective mind tends to have a dark yellow or yellowish-brown colour and is dominated by the vaeshya psychology described above.
Dharma is a word that refers to the pursuit of righteousness in the external world and the pursuit of spiritual purity and nobility in the internal realm. As per Shrii Sarkar, Dharma is arises out of the longing for eternal happiness or bliss and comprises four fundamental urges – vistára (urge for infinite expansion), rasa (urge for merger/union with the Cosmic Flow) seva (service) and tadstithi (attainment of the supreme state of existence – Pure Consciousness). In every culture there has emerged the idea of an ideal court of warriors who are pure and who establish justice and order in the society. The ideals of chivalry of Camelot, javanmardi of the Middle East, or the code of the samurai in Japan were the goal of various warrior societies in the past. Even the smallest warrior tribe has its own code of honour and legends of warriors who are role models for the present. Also there is the dream of an ideal kingdom of righteousness and the burning desire to transform one’s own society into such a place. The ardent, active pursuit of this dream cause the individual and collective mind to develop a reddish colour and to be dominated with the ksatriya psychology described above. It should be noted that for many ksatriyas and ksatriya socities the goal is simply the crude won of martial conquest and control over a kingdom.
Mokśa is a term that means salvation or the absolute state of Consciousness. In every religion (no matter how dogmatic or superstitious) there is the urge to attain such a state. While this is an innate human urge, for most people it remains mysterious and is associated with various forms of religious dogma and superstition. It is only spiritual practices of meditation and mystical love (bhakti) that lead to state of Samadhi (absorption in Consciousness) that give one an inkling or intimation of what is this state of salvation. When an individual or civilisation is dominated by this quest for spiritual salvation, then its mind tends to have a white radiance and the society tends to have the psychology of a vipra or spiritual personality. However, as we have seen above this is very rare and most such societies and individuals are instead driven by the desire for knowledge so as to be able to control and manipulate others to amass power and pleasure for these priests or intellectuals. The aim of Prout is to create such a true (sad) wise person (vipra) who have all the capacities and talents of shudras, ksatriyas and vaeshyas as well. Such persons as we shall see in the next sutra are called Sadvipras